Cryogenic sensor enabling broad-band and traceable power measurements

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A1 Alkuperäisartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä
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Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 94, issue 5
Recently, great progress has been made in the field of ultrasensitive microwave detectors, reaching even the threshold for utilization in circuit quantum electrodynamics. However, cryogenic sensors lack the compatibility with broad-band metrologically traceable power absorption measurements at ultralow powers, which restricts their range of applications. Here, we demonstrate such measurements using an ultralow-noise nanobolometer, which we extend by an additional direct-current (dc) heater input. The tracing of the absorbed power relies on comparing the response of the bolometer between radio frequency and dc-heating powers traced to the Josephson voltage and quantum Hall resistance. To illustrate this technique, we demonstrate two different methods of dc-substitution to calibrate the power that is delivered to the base temperature stage of a dilution refrigerator using our in situ power sensor. As an example, we demonstrate the ability to accurately measure the attenuation of a coaxial input line between thefrequencies of 50 MHz and 7 GHz with an uncertainty down to 0.1 dB at a typical input power of −114 dBm.
Funding Information: We acknowledge the provision of facilities and technical support by Aalto University at OtaNano–Micronova Nanofabrication Center and LTL infrastructure, which is part of the European Microkelvin Platform (EMP, Grant No. 824109 EU Horizon 2020). We have received funding from the European Research Council under Consolidator Grant No. 681311 (QUESS) and under Advanced Grant Nos. 670743 (QuDeT) and 101053801 (ConceptQ), the European Commission through H2020 program projects QMiCS (Grant Agreement No. 820505, Quantum Flagship), the Quantum Flagship funding by the European Commission through Project No. 101113946 (OpenSuperQPlus100), the Academy of Finland through its Centers of Excellence Program (project Nos. 312300, 312059, and 312295) and grants (Nos. 336810, 314447, 314448, 314449, 305237, 316551, 308161, 335460, and 314302), the Finnish Cultural Foundation, the Vilho, Yrjö, and Kalle Väisälä Foundation of the Finnish Academy of Science and Letters, the Jane and Aatos Erkko Foundation, and the Technology Industries of Finland Centennial Foundation. | openaire: EC/H2020/681311/EU//QUESS | openaire: EC/H2020/101053801/EU//ConceptQ | openaire: EC/H2020/670743/EU//QuDeT | openaire: EC/H2020/820505/EU//QMiCS | openaire: EC/H2020/681311/EU//QUESS
Girard , J P , Lake , R E , Liu , W , Kokkoniemi , R , Visakorpi , E , Govenius , J & Möttönen , M 2023 , ' Cryogenic sensor enabling broad-band and traceable power measurements ' , Review of Scientific Instruments , vol. 94 , no. 5 , 054710 , pp. 1-11 .