Short-term effect of plant-based Nordic diet versus carbohydrate-restricted diet on glucose levels in gestational diabetes – the eMOM pilot study

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Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
A1 Alkuperäisartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä
Date
2023-12
Major/Subject
Mcode
Degree programme
Language
en
Pages
11
1-11
Series
BMC Nutrition, Volume 9, issue 1
Abstract
Background: The optimal nutritional treatment for gestational diabetes (GDM) is still a matter of debate. With increasing rates of GDM and potential negative consequences for the health of mother and child, the best treatment should be established. The Nordic diet with emphasis on plant-based protein show promising health outcomes in other populations but has yet to be investigated in GDM population. The aim of this study, which is part of the “Effect of plant-based Nordic diet versus carbohydrate-restricted diet on glucose levels in gestational diabetes” (eMOM) pilot study was to compare the short-term effects of healthy Nordic diet (HND) and the currently recommended moderate restriction of carbohydrates diet (MCRD) on glucose and lipid metabolism in women with GDM. Methods: This was a randomized crossover where each of the diet interventions (HND and MCRD) were consumed for 3 days with a 3-day wash-out period in between. In total, 42 pregnant women diagnosed with GDM (< 29 + 0 gestational week) were randomized. Glucose data was collected by continuous glucose monitors (CGM, Freestyle Libre®, Abbott, USA) worn for 14 days, and participants gave blood samples before and after diet interventions. The primary outcome was time spent in glucose target range (TIR, < 7.8 mmol/L). TIR, 3-day mean tissue glucose as well as changes in fasting glucose, homeostatic model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and blood lipids were analyzed with paired samples statistical analyses. Results: Thirty-six women with complete 14 days CGM data were analyzed. Both diet interventions produced a high degree of TIR (99% SD 1.8), without a difference between the diets (p = 0.727). The 3-day mean glucose was significantly lower in HND than in MCRD (p = 0,049). Fasting insulin (p = 0,034), insulin resistance (p = 0,030), total and LDL cholesterol (p = 0,023 and 0,008) reduced more in the MCRD diet than the HND. NS differences in any other measure of CGM or blood tests. Conclusions: HND and MCRD did not differ in terms of their short-term effect on TIR. A larger study with sufficient power is needed to confirm the differences in short-term mean glucose, insulin resistance and lipid metabolism. Trial registration: Registered in clinicaltrials.gov (21/09/2018, NCT03681054).
Description
Funding Information: The authors would like to thank all of our participants and the study nurses, without whom we would not have been able to do the research. Publisher Copyright: © 2023, The Author(s).
Keywords
Carbohydrate restriction, CGM, Crossover, Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, Glycemic control, Medical nutrition therapy, Nordic Diet
Other note
Citation
Markussen , L T , Kivelä , J , Lindström , J , Ashrafi , R A , Heinonen , S , Koivusalo , S & Meinilä , J 2023 , ' Short-term effect of plant-based Nordic diet versus carbohydrate-restricted diet on glucose levels in gestational diabetes – the eMOM pilot study ' , BMC Nutrition , vol. 9 , no. 1 , 87 , pp. 1-11 . https://doi.org/10.1186/s40795-023-00744-7