Total ionising dose multilayer shielding optimisation for nanosatellites on geostationary transfer orbit

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Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
A1 Alkuperäisartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä
Date
2024-01-01
Major/Subject
Mcode
Degree programme
Language
en
Pages
15
831-845
Series
Advances in Space Research, Volume 73, issue 1
Abstract
The rising number of proposed nanosatellite missions with Commercial Off-The-Shelf electronics to higher orbits necessitates innovative, compact, and lightweight radiation shielding. In this study, several thousand multilayer radiation shielding configurations were simulated against trapped particle spectra predicted for a geostationary transfer orbit to demonstrate how material combinations and layer structures can be selected to minimise the total ionising dose inside nanosatellites with constrained mass budgets. The Geant4 Radiation Analysis for Space (GRAS) application was used to calculate ionising dose deposition behind multilayer shielding. Thousands of planar shielding stacks were procedurally generated and simulated on top of silicon plates representing sensitive semiconductor devices. To allow for comparison between configurations, all shielding stacks had a total mass of 1.5 g/cm2, and shielding performance was evaluated based on the total ionising dose absorbed by the silicon plates. The simulations consistently show that configurations with low-atomic-number (low-Z) materials on top of high-Z materials yield the lowest doses. The two- and three-layer mass allocation optimisations demonstrate the non-linear dependence of ionising dose on mass allocation between materials. Optimised polyethylene-lead shields achieved up to 30% lower ionising doses compared to an equal mass of either of the two materials or up to 50% lower than the same mass of aluminium. Contrary to previous claims about Z-graded shielding, no significant improvements were observed for using more than two different materials, and optimisation of multilayer shields tends to reduce them to two-layer structures. Optimal multilayer radiation shielding depends on various factors and must be tailored to specific radiation environments and mission requirements. The primary contributions of this article are the methods presented for achieving this tailoring using open-source software and parallel computing. The multilayer simulations performedfor this work resulted in an extensive dataset for multilayer shielding performance that enabled novel visualisations of the ionising dose dependence on shielding composition based on quantitative results.
Description
Funding Information: All simulations for this article were performed using the Aalto University Triton computing cluster provided by the Aalto Science-IT project. The research presented in this article was performed as part of and financed by the Finnish Centre of Excellence in Research of Sustainable Space (FORESAIL), a project under the Research Council of Finland decision numbers 312358 and 336808. Publisher Copyright: © 2023 COSPAR
Keywords
CubeSat, Geant4, Ionising dose, Multilayer, Nanosatellite, Optimisation, Radiation, Shielding, Small satellite, Van-Allen belts
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Citation
Fetzer , A , Anger , M , Oleynik , P & Praks , J 2024 , ' Total ionising dose multilayer shielding optimisation for nanosatellites on geostationary transfer orbit ' , Advances in Space Research , vol. 73 , no. 1 , pp. 831-845 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2023.10.028