Recovering value from end-of-life batteries by integrating froth flotation and pyrometallurgical copper-slag cleaning

dc.contributorAalto Universityen
dc.contributor.authorRinne, Tommien_US
dc.contributor.authorKlemettinen, Annaen_US
dc.contributor.authorKlemettinen, Lassien_US
dc.contributor.authorRuismäki, Ronjaen_US
dc.contributor.authorO’Brien, Hughen_US
dc.contributor.authorJokilaakso, Arien_US
dc.contributor.authorSerna-Guerrero, Rodrigoen_US
dc.contributor.departmentDepartment of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineeringen
dc.contributor.departmentSchool common, CHEMen
dc.contributor.groupauthorMineral Processing and Recyclingen
dc.contributor.groupauthorMetallurgy (MTG)en
dc.contributor.organizationGeological Survey of Finlanden_US
dc.descriptionFunding Information: Funding: This research was funded by Business Finland BATCircle2.0 project, grant number 44886/31/ 2020, and SYMMET project, grant number 3891/31/2018. 26 of 30 Publisher Copyright: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
dc.description.abstractIn this study, industrial lithium-ion battery (LIB) waste was treated by a froth flotation process, which allowed selective separation of electrode particles from metallic-rich fractions containing Cu and Al. In the flotation experiments, recovery rates of ~80 and 98.8% for the cathode active elements (Co, Ni, Mn) and graphite were achieved, respectively. The recovered metals from the flotation fraction were subsequently used in high-temperature Cu-slag reduction. In this manner, the possibility of using metallothermic reduction for Cu-slag reduction using Al-wires from LIB waste as the main reductant was studied. The behavior of valuable (Cu, Ni, Co, Li) and hazardous metals (Zn, As, Sb, Pb), as a function of time as well as the influence of Cu-slag-to-spent battery (SB) ratio, were investigated. The results showcase a suitable process to recover copper from spent batteries and industrial Cu-slag. Cu-concentration decreased to approximately 0.3 wt.% after 60 min reduction time in all samples where Cu/Al-rich LIB waste fraction was added. It was also showed that aluminothermic reduction is effective for removing hazardous metals from the slag. The proposed process is also capable of recovering Cu, Co, and Ni from both Cu-slag and LIB waste, resulting in a secondary Cu slag that can be used in various applications.en
dc.description.versionPeer revieweden
dc.identifier.citationRinne, T, Klemettinen, A, Klemettinen, L, Ruismäki, R, O’Brien, H, Jokilaakso, A & Serna-Guerrero, R 2022, ' Recovering value from end-of-life batteries by integrating froth flotation and pyrometallurgical copper-slag cleaning ', Metals, vol. 12, no. 1, 15 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 5a8e0818-30a0-4efc-9ffd-1d7740701b02en_US
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dc.publisherMultidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)
dc.relation.ispartofseriesVolume 12, issue 1en
dc.subject.keywordAluminother-mic reductionen_US
dc.subject.keywordLithium-ion batteriesen_US
dc.subject.keywordMechanical treatmenten_US
dc.titleRecovering value from end-of-life batteries by integrating froth flotation and pyrometallurgical copper-slag cleaningen
dc.typeA1 Alkuperäisartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessäfi