Materials and recycling of novel sodium battery chemistries

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Kemian tekniikan korkeakoulu | Master's thesis
Chemical and Process Engineering
Degree programme
Master's Programme in Chemical, Biochemical and Materials Engineering
73 + 20
In the light of rapid growth and advancement in technology, the lithium-ion battery (LIB) has met the recent urgent need for the daily utilization of energy production and storage technologies. However, concerns remain about the sustainability of lithium sources and their storage capacity in relation to increasing demand in the future. In order to mitigate these problems, research on alternative energy storage systems has been promoted and is increasing gradually. The sodium-ion battery (SIB) is considered the best candidate as a potential next-generation alternative to LIB because sodium sources is abundant and possesses similar chemical properties. In this work, the general background and structure of batteries, current studies on electrode materials, and sodium batteries will be discussed. During the past few decades, batteries in general and LIBs in particular have been developed to meet the needs of industrial use. However, efforts must be made in the recycling sector to reduce the negative impact to the environment and ecology of battery wastes. This study describes the general background of the battery recycling process and recycling methods. More specifically, the recycling stages of LIBs are performed in three sections including pretreatment, secondary treatment, and subsequent treatment. During pretreatment, the battery is first manually drained and disassembled. Then, the unit cells are broken down and separated into smaller components through secondary processing. Finally, the cell fractions are broken down into raw materials for recovery or re-synthesis during further processing. In this work, the pretreatment disassembly process of SIB is performed to separate main components, then their materials are analyzed by SEM-MS, ICP-OES and IC methods. From then, the recycling route is predicted and discussed for new materials battery based on elemental analysis results. In addition, perspectives on battery recycling trends and the challenges faced by the recycling process with new electrode materials are considered.
Lunström, Mari
Thesis advisor
Rinne, Marja
lithium-ion batteries, sodium-ion batteries, sodium salt batteries, batteries recycling process
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