Past and Future Sea Level Changes and Land Uplift in the Baltic Sea Seen by Geodetic Observations

Thumbnail Image
Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
Conference article in proceedings
Degree programme
International Association of Geodesy Symposia, International Association of Geodesy symposia
We have studied the land uplift and relative sea level changes in the Baltic Sea in northern Europe. To observe the past changes and land uplift, we have used continuous GNSS time series, campaign-wise absolute gravity measurements and continuous tide gauge time series. To predict the future, we have used probabilistic future scenarios tuned for the Baltic Sea. The area we are interested in is Kvarken archipelago in Finland and High Coast in Sweden. These areas form a UNESCO World Heritage Site, where the land uplift process and how it demonstrates itself are the main values. We provide here the latest numbers of land uplift for the area, the current rates from geodetic observations, and probabilistic scenarios for future relative sea level rise. The maximum land uplift rates in Fennoscandia are in the Bothnian Bay of the Baltic Sea, where the maximum values are currently on the order of 10 mm/year with respect to the geoid. During the last 100 years, the land has risen from the sea by approximately 80 cm in this area. Estimates of future relative sea level change have considerable uncertainty, with values for the year 2100 ranging from 75 cm of sea level fall (land emergence) to 30 cm of sea-level rise.
Baltic Sea, Geodetic time series, Land uplift, Sea level rise
Other note
Nordman , M , Peltola , A , Bilker-Koivula , M & Lahtinen , S 2023 , Past and Future Sea Level Changes and Land Uplift in the Baltic Sea Seen by Geodetic Observations . in J T Freymueller & L Sánchez (eds) , Beyond 100 : The Next Century in Geodesy - Proceedings of the IAG General Assembly, 2019 . International Association of Geodesy symposia , vol. 152 , Springer , pp. 161-167 , International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics General Assembly , Montreal , Quebec , Canada , 08/07/2019 .