Evaluation of bone growth around bioactive glass S53P4 by scanning acoustic microscopy co-registered with optical interferometry and elemental analysis

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Journal Title
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Volume Title
A1 Alkuperäisartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä
Date
2023-12
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Language
en
Pages
11
1-11
Series
Scientific Reports, Volume 13, issue 1
Abstract
Bioactive glass (BAG) is a bone substitute that can be used in orthopaedic surgery. Following implantation, the BAG is expected to be replaced by bone via bone growth and gradual degradation of the BAG. However, the hydroxyapatite mineral forming on BAG resembles bone mineral, not providing sufficient contrast to distinguish the two in X-ray images. In this study, we co-registered coded-excitation scanning acoustic microscopy (CESAM), scanning white light interferometry (SWLI), and scanning electron microscopy with elemental analysis (Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy) (SEM–EDX) to investigate the bone growth and BAG reactions on a micron scale in a rabbit bone ex vivo. The acoustic impedance map recorded by the CESAM provides high elasticity-associated contrast to study materials and their combinations, while simultaneously producing a topography map of the sample. The acoustic impedance map correlated with the elemental analysis from SEM–EDX. SWLI also produces a topography map, but with higher resolution than CESAM. The two topography maps (CESAM and SWLI) were in good agreement. Furthermore, using information from both maps simultaneously produced by the CESAM (acoustic impedance and topography) allowed determining regions-of-interest related to bone formation around the BAG with greater ease than from either map alone. CESAM is therefore a promising tool for evaluating the degradation of bone substitutes and the bone healing process ex vivo.
Description
Funding Information: We gratefully acknowledge the financial support provided by a research grant from Helsinki University Hospital and the Finnish Medical Association. Publisher Copyright: © 2023, The Author(s).
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Holmström , A , Meriläinen , A , Hyvönen , J , Nolvi , A , Ylitalo , T , Steffen , K , Björkenheim , R , Strömberg , G , Nieminen , H J , Kassamakov , I , Pajarinen , J , Hupa , L , Salmi , A , Hæggström , E & Lindfors , N C 2023 , ' Evaluation of bone growth around bioactive glass S53P4 by scanning acoustic microscopy co-registered with optical interferometry and elemental analysis ' , Scientific Reports , vol. 13 , no. 1 , 6646 , pp. 1-11 . https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-023-33454-y