Planck 2018 results: XII. Galactic astrophysics using polarized dust emission

dc.contributorAalto Universityen
dc.contributor.authorAghanim, N.en_US
dc.contributor.authorAkrami, Y.en_US
dc.contributor.authorAlves, M. I.R.en_US
dc.contributor.authorAshdown, M.en_US
dc.contributor.authorAumont, J.en_US
dc.contributor.authorBaccigalupi, C.en_US
dc.contributor.authorBallardini, M.en_US
dc.contributor.authorBanday, A. J.en_US
dc.contributor.authorBarreiro, R. B.en_US
dc.contributor.authorBartolo, N.en_US
dc.contributor.authorBasak, S.en_US
dc.contributor.authorBenabed, K.en_US
dc.contributor.authorBernard, J. P.en_US
dc.contributor.authorBersanelli, M.en_US
dc.contributor.authorBielewicz, P.en_US
dc.contributor.authorBock, J. J.en_US
dc.contributor.authorBond, J. R.en_US
dc.contributor.authorBorrill, J.en_US
dc.contributor.authorBouchet, F. R.en_US
dc.contributor.authorBoulanger, F.en_US
dc.contributor.authorBracco, A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorBucher, M.en_US
dc.contributor.authorBurigana, C.en_US
dc.contributor.authorCalabrese, E.en_US
dc.contributor.authorCardoso, J. F.en_US
dc.contributor.authorCarron, J.en_US
dc.contributor.authorChary, R. R.en_US
dc.contributor.authorChiang, H. C.en_US
dc.contributor.authorColombo, L. P.L.en_US
dc.contributor.authorCombet, C.en_US
dc.contributor.authorCrill, B. P.en_US
dc.contributor.authorCuttaia, F.en_US
dc.contributor.authorDe Bernardis, P.en_US
dc.contributor.authorDe Zotti, G.en_US
dc.contributor.authorDelabrouille, J.en_US
dc.contributor.authorDelouis, J. M.en_US
dc.contributor.authorDi Valentino, E.en_US
dc.contributor.authorDickinson, C.en_US
dc.contributor.authorDiego, J. M.en_US
dc.contributor.authorDoré, O.en_US
dc.contributor.authorDouspis, M.en_US
dc.contributor.authorDucout, A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorDupac, X.en_US
dc.contributor.authorEfstathiou, G.en_US
dc.contributor.authorElsner, F.en_US
dc.contributor.authorEnßlin, T. A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorEriksen, H. K.en_US
dc.contributor.authorFalgarone, E.en_US
dc.contributor.authorFantaye, Y.en_US
dc.contributor.authorFernandez-Cobos, R.en_US
dc.contributor.authorFerrière, K.en_US
dc.contributor.authorFinelli, F.en_US
dc.contributor.authorForastieri, F.en_US
dc.contributor.authorFrailis, M.en_US
dc.contributor.authorFraisse, A. A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorFranceschi, E.en_US
dc.contributor.authorFrolov, A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorGaleotta, S.en_US
dc.contributor.authorGalli, S.en_US
dc.contributor.authorGanga, K.en_US
dc.contributor.authorGénova-Santos, R. T.en_US
dc.contributor.authorGerbino, M.en_US
dc.contributor.authorGhosh, T.en_US
dc.contributor.authorGonzález-Nuevo, J.en_US
dc.contributor.authorGórski, K. M.en_US
dc.contributor.authorGratton, S.en_US
dc.contributor.authorGreen, G.en_US
dc.contributor.authorGruppuso, A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorGudmundsson, J. E.en_US
dc.contributor.authorGuillet, V.en_US
dc.contributor.authorHandley, W.en_US
dc.contributor.authorHansen, F. K.en_US
dc.contributor.authorHelou, G.en_US
dc.contributor.authorHerranz, D.en_US
dc.contributor.authorHivon, E.en_US
dc.contributor.authorHuang, Z.en_US
dc.contributor.authorJaffe, A. H.en_US
dc.contributor.authorJones, W. C.en_US
dc.contributor.authorKeihänen, E.en_US
dc.contributor.authorKeskitalo, R.en_US
dc.contributor.authorKiiveri, K.en_US
dc.contributor.authorKim, Jaiseungen_US
dc.contributor.authorKrachmalnicoff, N.en_US
dc.contributor.authorKunz, M.en_US
dc.contributor.authorKurki-Suonio, H.en_US
dc.contributor.authorLagache, G.en_US
dc.contributor.authorLamarre, J. M.en_US
dc.contributor.authorLasenby, A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorLattanzi, M.en_US
dc.contributor.authorLawrence, C. R.en_US
dc.contributor.authorLe Jeune, M.en_US
dc.contributor.authorLevrier, F.en_US
dc.contributor.authorLiguori, M.en_US
dc.contributor.authorLilje, P. B.en_US
dc.contributor.authorLindholm, V.en_US
dc.contributor.authorLópez-Caniego, M.en_US
dc.contributor.authorLubin, P. M.en_US
dc.contributor.authorMa, Y. Z.en_US
dc.contributor.authorMaciás-Pérez, J. F.en_US
dc.contributor.authorMaggio, G.en_US
dc.contributor.authorMaino, D.en_US
dc.contributor.authorMandolesi, N.en_US
dc.contributor.authorMangilli, A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorMarcos-Caballero, A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorMaris, M.en_US
dc.contributor.authorMartin, P. G.en_US
dc.contributor.authorMartínez-González, E.en_US
dc.contributor.authorMatarrese, S.en_US
dc.contributor.authorMauri, N.en_US
dc.contributor.authorMcEwen, J. D.en_US
dc.contributor.authorMelchiorri, A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorMennella, A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorMigliaccio, M.en_US
dc.contributor.authorMiville-Deschênes, M. A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorMolinari, D.en_US
dc.contributor.authorMoneti, A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorMontier, L.en_US
dc.contributor.authorMorgante, G.en_US
dc.contributor.authorMoss, A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorNatoli, P.en_US
dc.contributor.authorPagano, L.en_US
dc.contributor.authorPaoletti, D.en_US
dc.contributor.authorPatanchon, G.en_US
dc.contributor.authorPerrotta, F.en_US
dc.contributor.authorPettorino, V.en_US
dc.contributor.authorPiacentini, F.en_US
dc.contributor.authorPolastri, L.en_US
dc.contributor.authorPolenta, G.en_US
dc.contributor.authorPuget, J. L.en_US
dc.contributor.authorRachen, J. P.en_US
dc.contributor.authorReinecke, M.en_US
dc.contributor.authorRemazeilles, M.en_US
dc.contributor.authorRenzi, A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorRistorcelli, I.en_US
dc.contributor.authorRocha, G.en_US
dc.contributor.authorRosset, C.en_US
dc.contributor.authorRoudier, G.en_US
dc.contributor.authorRubiño-Martín, J. A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorRuiz-Granados, B.en_US
dc.contributor.authorSalvati, L.en_US
dc.contributor.authorSandri, M.en_US
dc.contributor.authorSavelainen, M.en_US
dc.contributor.authorScott, D.en_US
dc.contributor.authorSirignano, C.en_US
dc.contributor.authorSunyaev, R.en_US
dc.contributor.authorSuur-Uski, A. S.en_US
dc.contributor.authorTauber, J. A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorTavagnacco, D.en_US
dc.contributor.authorTenti, M.en_US
dc.contributor.authorToffolatti, L.en_US
dc.contributor.authorTomasi, M.en_US
dc.contributor.authorTrombetti, T.en_US
dc.contributor.authorValiviita, J.en_US
dc.contributor.authorVansyngel, F.en_US
dc.contributor.authorVan Tent, B.en_US
dc.contributor.authorVielva, P.en_US
dc.contributor.authorVilla, F.en_US
dc.contributor.authorVittorio, N.en_US
dc.contributor.authorWandelt, B. D.en_US
dc.contributor.authorWehus, I. K.en_US
dc.contributor.authorZacchei, A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorZonca, A.en_US
dc.contributor.departmentDepartment of Applied Physicsen
dc.contributor.organizationUniversité Paris-Suden_US
dc.contributor.organizationÉcole normale supérieureen_US
dc.contributor.organizationUniversity of Cambridgeen_US
dc.contributor.organizationUniversité Paul Sabatier Toulouse IIIen_US
dc.contributor.organizationInternational School for Advanced Studiesen_US
dc.contributor.organizationUniversity of the Western Capeen_US
dc.contributor.organizationUniversidad de Cantabriaen_US
dc.contributor.organizationUniversity of Padovaen_US
dc.contributor.organizationIndian Institute of Science Education and Research Thiruvananthapuramen_US
dc.contributor.organizationInstitut d 'Astrophysique de Parisen_US
dc.contributor.organizationUniversity of Milanen_US
dc.contributor.organizationNicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Centeren_US
dc.contributor.organizationCalifornia Institute of Technologyen_US
dc.contributor.organizationUniversity of Torontoen_US
dc.contributor.organizationLawrence Berkeley National Laboratoryen_US
dc.contributor.organizationUniversité Pierre et Marie Curieen_US
dc.contributor.organizationUniversity of Ferraraen_US
dc.contributor.organizationCardiff Universityen_US
dc.contributor.organizationUniversity of Sussexen_US
dc.contributor.organizationUniversity of KwaZulu-Natalen_US
dc.contributor.organizationInstitut national de physique nucléaire et de physique des particulesen_US
dc.contributor.organizationNational Research Council of Italyen_US
dc.contributor.organizationSapienza University of Romeen_US
dc.contributor.organizationINAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Padovaen_US
dc.contributor.organizationUniversité de Bretagne Occidentaleen_US
dc.contributor.organizationUniversity of Manchesteren_US
dc.contributor.organizationUniversity of Tokyoen_US
dc.contributor.organizationEuropean Space Astronomy Centreen_US
dc.contributor.organizationMax-Planck-Institut für Astrophysiken_US
dc.contributor.organizationUniversity of Osloen_US
dc.contributor.organizationUMR 7095en_US
dc.contributor.organizationAfrican Institute for Mathematical Sciencesen_US
dc.contributor.organizationOsservatorio Astronomico di Triesteen_US
dc.contributor.organizationPrinceton Universityen_US
dc.contributor.organizationSimon Fraser Universityen_US
dc.contributor.organizationUniversity of Chicagoen_US
dc.contributor.organizationUniversity of La Lagunaen_US
dc.contributor.organizationStockholm Universityen_US
dc.contributor.organizationCahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysicsen_US
dc.contributor.organizationUniversity of Oviedoen_US
dc.contributor.organizationJet Propulsion Laboratoryen_US
dc.contributor.organizationStanford Universityen_US
dc.contributor.organizationSun Yat-sen Universityen_US
dc.contributor.organizationImperial College Londonen_US
dc.contributor.organizationUniversity of Helsinkien_US
dc.contributor.organizationUniversity of California, Santa Barbaraen_US
dc.contributor.organizationNational Institute for Nuclear Physicsen_US
dc.contributor.organizationUniversity College Londonen_US
dc.contributor.organizationUniversity of Rome Tor Vergataen_US
dc.contributor.organizationUniversité Paris-Saclayen_US
dc.contributor.organizationUniversity of Nottinghamen_US
dc.contributor.organizationAgenzia Spaziale Italianaen_US
dc.contributor.organizationRadboud University Nijmegenen_US
dc.contributor.organizationUniversity of British Columbiaen_US
dc.contributor.organizationEuropean Space Research and Technology Centreen_US
dc.contributor.organizationUniversità degli studi di Triesteen_US
dc.contributor.organizationIstituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Bolognaen_US
dc.contributor.organizationUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-Champaignen_US
dc.contributor.organizationUniversity of California, San Diegoen_US
dc.description.abstractObservations of the submillimetre emission from Galactic dust, in both total intensity I and polarization, have received tremendous interest thanks to the Planck full-sky maps. In this paper we make use of such full-sky maps of dust polarized emission produced from the third public release of Planck data. As the basis for expanding on astrophysical studies of the polarized thermal emission from Galactic dust, we present full-sky maps of the dust polarization fraction p, polarization angle ψ, and dispersion function of polarization angles «. The joint distribution (one-point statistics) of p and NH confirms that the mean and maximum polarization fractions decrease with increasing NH. The uncertainty on the maximum observed polarization fraction, pmax = 22.0-1.4+3.5% at 353 GHz and 80′ resolution, is dominated by the uncertainty on the Galactic emission zero level in total intensity, in particular towards diffuse lines of sight at high Galactic latitudes. Furthermore, the inverse behaviour between p and « found earlier is seen to be present at high latitudes. This follows the «p-1 relationship expected from models of the polarized sky (including numerical simulations of magnetohydrodynamical turbulence) that include effects from only the topology of the turbulent magnetic field, but otherwise have uniform alignment and dust properties. Thus, the statistical properties of p, ψ, and « for the most part reflect the structure of the Galactic magnetic field. Nevertheless, we search for potential signatures of varying grain alignment and dust properties. First, we analyse the product map « × p, looking for residual trends. While the polarization fraction p decreases by a factor of 3-4 between NH = 1020 cm-2 and NH = 2 × 1022 cm-2, out of the Galactic plane, this product « × p only decreases by about 25%. Because « is independent of the grain alignment efficiency, this demonstrates that the systematic decrease in p with NH is determined mostly by the magnetic-field structure and not by a drop in grain alignment. This systematic trend is observed both in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) and in molecular clouds of the Gould Belt. Second, we look for a dependence of polarization properties on the dust temperature, as we would expect from the radiative alignment torque (RAT) theory. We find no systematic trend of « × p with the dust temperature Td, whether in the diffuse ISM or in the molecular clouds of the Gould Belt. In the diffuse ISM, lines of sight with high polarization fraction p and low polarization angle dispersion « tend, on the contrary, to have colder dust than lines of sight with low p and high «. We also compare the Planck thermal dust polarization with starlight polarization data in the visible at high Galactic latitudes. The agreement in polarization angles is remarkable, and is consistent with what we expect from the noise and the observed dispersion of polarization angles in the visible on the scale of the Planck beam. The two polarization emission-to-extinction ratios, RP/p and RS/V, which primarily characterize dust optical properties, have only a weak dependence on the column density, and converge towards the values previously determined for translucent lines of sight. We also determine an upper limit for the polarization fraction in extinction, pV/E(B - V), of 13% at high Galactic latitude, compatible with the polarization fraction p ≈ 20% observed at 353 GHz. Taken together, these results provide strong constraints for models of Galactic dust in diffuse gas.en
dc.description.versionPeer revieweden
dc.identifier.citationAghanim, N, Akrami, Y, Alves, M I R, Ashdown, M, Aumont, J, Baccigalupi, C, Ballardini, M, Banday, A J, Barreiro, R B, Bartolo, N, Basak, S, Benabed, K, Bernard, J P, Bersanelli, M, Bielewicz, P, Bock, J J, Bond, J R, Borrill, J, Bouchet, F R, Boulanger, F, Bracco, A, Bucher, M, Burigana, C, Calabrese, E, Cardoso, J F, Carron, J, Chary, R R, Chiang, H C, Colombo, L P L, Combet, C, Crill, B P, Cuttaia, F, De Bernardis, P, De Zotti, G, Delabrouille, J, Delouis, J M, Di Valentino, E, Dickinson, C, Diego, J M, Doré, O, Douspis, M, Ducout, A, Dupac, X, Efstathiou, G, Elsner, F, Enßlin, T A, Eriksen, H K, Falgarone, E, Fantaye, Y, Fernandez-Cobos, R, Ferrière, K, Finelli, F, Forastieri, F, Frailis, M, Fraisse, A A, Franceschi, E, Frolov, A, Galeotta, S, Galli, S, Ganga, K, Génova-Santos, R T, Gerbino, M, Ghosh, T, González-Nuevo, J, Górski, K M, Gratton, S, Green, G, Gruppuso, A, Gudmundsson, J E, Guillet, V, Handley, W, Hansen, F K, Helou, G, Herranz, D, Hivon, E, Huang, Z, Jaffe, A H, Jones, W C, Keihänen, E, Keskitalo, R, Kiiveri, K, Kim, J, Krachmalnicoff, N, Kunz, M, Kurki-Suonio, H, Lagache, G, Lamarre, J M, Lasenby, A, Lattanzi, M, Lawrence, C R, Le Jeune, M, Levrier, F, Liguori, M, Lilje, P B, Lindholm, V, López-Caniego, M, Lubin, P M, Ma, Y Z, Maciás-Pérez, J F, Maggio, G, Maino, D, Mandolesi, N, Mangilli, A, Marcos-Caballero, A, Maris, M, Martin, P G, Martínez-González, E, Matarrese, S, Mauri, N, McEwen, J D, Melchiorri, A, Mennella, A, Migliaccio, M, Miville-Deschênes, M A, Molinari, D, Moneti, A, Montier, L, Morgante, G, Moss, A, Natoli, P, Pagano, L, Paoletti, D, Patanchon, G, Perrotta, F, Pettorino, V, Piacentini, F, Polastri, L, Polenta, G, Puget, J L, Rachen, J P, Reinecke, M, Remazeilles, M, Renzi, A, Ristorcelli, I, Rocha, G, Rosset, C, Roudier, G, Rubiño-Martín, J A, Ruiz-Granados, B, Salvati, L, Sandri, M, Savelainen, M, Scott, D, Sirignano, C, Sunyaev, R, Suur-Uski, A S, Tauber, J A, Tavagnacco, D, Tenti, M, Toffolatti, L, Tomasi, M, Trombetti, T, Valiviita, J, Vansyngel, F, Van Tent, B, Vielva, P, Villa, F, Vittorio, N, Wandelt, B D, Wehus, I K, Zacchei, A & Zonca, A 2020, ' Planck 2018 results : XII. Galactic astrophysics using polarized dust emission ', Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol. 641, 12 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 76720f0d-250e-4bce-807b-6dfbb28ba8b9en_US
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dc.publisherEDP SCIENCES
dc.relation.ispartofseriesAstronomy and Astrophysicsen
dc.relation.ispartofseriesVolume 641en
dc.subject.keywordLocal insterstellar matteren_US
dc.subject.keywordMagnetic fieldsen_US
dc.subject.keywordSubmillimeter: ISMen_US
dc.titlePlanck 2018 results: XII. Galactic astrophysics using polarized dust emissionen
dc.typeA1 Alkuperäisartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessäfi