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Low Cost and IoT Magnetometer for Underwater Applications

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dc.contributor Aalto-yliopisto fi
dc.contributor Aalto University en
dc.contributor.advisor Envall, Jouni
dc.contributor.advisor Tanskanen, Eija
dc.contributor.author Castrejon Suarez del Real, Ingrid
dc.date.accessioned 2020-12-20T18:16:07Z
dc.date.available 2020-12-20T18:16:07Z
dc.date.issued 2020-12-14
dc.identifier.uri https://aaltodoc.aalto.fi/handle/123456789/97616
dc.description.abstract Magnetometers are essential tools in our understanding of Solar-Terrestrial interactions. Solar activity, such as solar storms or solar energetic particles (SEP), may damage our infrastructure and lead to energy and communications blackouts, potentially generating a huge economic burden. With the help of magnetometers we can analyse changes in the Earth’s magnetic field, and, thus, mitigate the negative effects of space weather. Although we have sophisticated instruments to measure the Earth’s magnetic field we are still limited by the amount of area we can cover. Commercially available scientific magnetometers are expensive, hence, making it challenging to deploy large numbers of them throughout the globe. In addition, maintaining them requires time, effort, knowledge, and money. Furthermore, accessing the data is not always straightforward. Having a broad coverage of magnetic instruments around the globe may help us understand not only solar-terrestrial interactions, but it may also help us understand the Earth’s inner core, animal migration behaviour, or other unknowns such as the influence of the solar cycle variation on the Earth’s climate, or the polarity flip of the Earth’s magnetic field. This will consequently help us prevent and mitigate the effects of natural disaster. This thesis aims to develop a breadboard prototype of a high-quality, low-cost, and easily replicable magnetometer for underwater applications that provides real-time data access in order to facilitate worldwide deployment of magnetic instruments and help achieve global coverage of magnetic field observations. The prototype includes three low-cost single-core fluxgate magnetic sensors in conjunction with six low-pass-filters and a 24-bit analog-to-digital converter, and an Arduino board as a microcontroller. It allows real-time data access through the use of a cellular network and an IoT (Internet of Things) analytics platform, and it aims to enable underwater capability by tracking the magnetometer movements in the water and by further applying a coordinate frame transformation. The observations show that while a resolution smaller than 0.1 nT is possible, higher quality sensors, such as ring-core fluxgate sensors, are needed if increased accuracy and precision are desirable. The simulation results show that the algorithm implemented for correcting the difference in orientation of the instrument with re- spect to the Earth’s frame of reference, would accurately correct the measured field while moving underwater. These results demonstrate that a low-cost high-quality instrument with real-time data transmission is possible, thus, facilitating global deployment of magnetometers, and as a result, the increase of world coverage of magnetic observations. en
dc.format.extent 66
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf en
dc.language.iso en en
dc.title Low Cost and IoT Magnetometer for Underwater Applications en
dc.type G2 Pro gradu, diplomityö fi
dc.contributor.school Sähkötekniikan korkeakoulu fi
dc.subject.keyword magnetometer en
dc.subject.keyword underwater en
dc.subject.keyword space weather en
dc.subject.keyword low-cost en
dc.subject.keyword iot en
dc.subject.keyword Arduino en
dc.identifier.urn URN:NBN:fi:aalto-2020122056443
dc.programme.major Space Science and Technology fi
dc.programme.mcode ELEC3039 fi
dc.type.ontasot Master's thesis en
dc.type.ontasot Diplomityö fi
dc.contributor.supervisor Tanskanen, Eija
dc.programme Master’s Programme in Electronics and Nanotechnology (TS2013) fi
dc.location P1 fi
local.aalto.electroniconly yes
local.aalto.openaccess yes

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