Dynamics of quantized vortices in applied flow in superfluid 3He-B

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dc.contributor Aalto-yliopisto fi
dc.contributor Aalto University en
dc.contributor.advisor Krusius, M., Prof.
dc.contributor.author Graaf, Robert Jan de
dc.date.accessioned 2012-09-04T06:59:18Z
dc.date.available 2012-09-04T06:59:18Z
dc.date.issued 2011
dc.identifier.isbn 978-952-60-4108-7 (PDF)
dc.identifier.isbn 978-952-60-4107-0 (printed)
dc.identifier.issn 1799-4942
dc.identifier.uri https://aaltodoc.aalto.fi/handle/123456789/5065
dc.description.abstract This thesis is mostly focussed on studies of dynamics of superfluid ³He-B at temperatures below 0.4Tc where the flow of quantized vortex lines was expected to be generally turbulent. The damping in vortex motion changes many orders of magnitude in a small temperature interval making vortices in superfluids an ideal tool to study turbulence. The quantum nature of vortices in superfluids allows for exotic hydrodynamics that does not exist in classical fluids. Earlier research had showed that vortices become unstable and lead to turbulence when the superfluid Reynolds number exceeds unity. The question remained open whether vortical flow is inherently unstable at lower temperatures. This thesis addresses issues surrounding the instability of quantized vortices in applied flow in the zero-temperature limit. Using the non-invasive nuclear magnetic resonance measurement technique, we have studied the dynamics of vortices in transient states during spin-up experiments where the rotation velocity of the system changes in a step-like manner. We found transition temperatures where the vortices connected to the cylindrical container become unstable and, ultimately, start a turbulent burst of vortex formation. This is in contrast to the laminar motion at higher temperatures, where the vortex ends smoothly slide in helical motion on the cylindrical surface. The exact conditions for this onset temperature to turbulence are established in terms of the applied flow, and the perturbation of the superfluid state by so-called seed vortices. The spin-up and spin-down experiments in the zero-temperature limit show different vortex dynamics. The vortex motion in applied flow is laminar for a cylindrical container, while in a cubical geometry the motion is expected to be partly turbulent. Our experiments on turbulent front propagation after injection of seed vortices from the AB-phase boundary (via the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability) into the rotating Landau state show a change over from quasi-classical turbulence at high temperatures, to quantum turbulence in the low temperature regime where the energy cascade of Kelvin wave excitations starts to contribute to the dissipative process. The effect of a bottleneck in this energy cascade is expressed in the front propagation velocity. The contribution of the density anisotropy to the textural energy of the superfluid in rotation is measured from the high to the zero-temperature limit. Comparison with theory allows determination of the superfluid energy gap. We have mapped the superfluid order parameter flare out textures in terms of applied flow and temperature. A quartz tuning fork with a high quality factor has been studied in superfluid ³He-B. The device is found to be an excellent tool to measure temperature, pressure and viscosity. In the zero-temperature limit, where other temperature measurement devices start to saturate, the fork's sensitivity increases due to the exponential dependence on the quasiparticle density. en
dc.format.extent Verkkokirja (2184 KB, 51 s.)
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher Aalto University en
dc.relation.ispartofseries Aalto University publication series DOCTORAL DISSERTATIONS , 37/2011 en
dc.relation.haspart [Publication 1]: R. de Graaf, V. B. Eltsov, P. J. Heikkinen, J. J. Hosio, and M. Krusius. 2011. Textures of superfluid 3He-B in applied flow and comparison with hydrostatic theory. Journal of Low Temperature Physics, volume 163, numbers 5-6, pages 238-261. en
dc.relation.haspart [Publication 2]: V. B. Eltsov, R. de Graaf, P. J. Heikkinen, J. J. Hosio, R. Hänninen, M. Krusius, and V. S. L'vov. 2010. Stability and dissipation of laminar vortex flow in superfluid 3He-B. Physical Review Letters, volume 105, number 12, 125301, 4 pages. © 2010 American Physical Society (APS). By permission. en
dc.relation.haspart [Publication 3]: V. B. Eltsov, A. I. Golov, R. de Graaf, R. Hänninen, M. Krusius, V. S. L'vov, and R. E. Solntsev. 2007. Quantum turbulence in a propagating superfluid vortex front. Physical Review Letters, volume 99, number 26, 265301, 4 pages. © 2007 American Physical Society (APS). By permission. en
dc.relation.haspart [Publication 4]: R. de Graaf, R. Hänninen, T. V. Chagovets, V. B. Eltsov, M. Krusius, and R. E. Solntsev. 2008. The dynamics of vortex generation in superfluid 3He-B. Journal of Low Temperature Physics, volume 153, numbers 5-6, pages 197-227. en
dc.relation.haspart [Publication 5]: V. B. Eltsov, R. de Graaf, P. J. Heikkinen, J. J. Hosio, R. Hänninen, and M. Krusius. 2010. Vortex formation and annihilation in rotating superfluid 3He-B at low temperatures. Journal of Low Temperature Physics, volume 161, numbers 5-6, pages 474-508. en
dc.relation.haspart [Publication 6]: R. E. Solntsev, R. de Graaf, V. B. Eltsov, R. Hänninen, and M. Krusius. 2007. Dynamic remanent vortices in superfluid 3He-B. Journal of Low Temperature Physics, volume 148, numbers 3-4, pages 311-316. en
dc.relation.haspart [Publication 7]: R. Hänninen, V. B. Eltsov, A. P. Finne, R. de Graaf, J. Kopu, M. Krusius, and R. E. Solntsev. 2009. Precessing vortex motion and instability in a rotating column of superfluid 3He-B. Journal of Low Temperature Physics, volume 155, numbers 1-2, pages 98-113. en
dc.relation.haspart [Publication 8]: R. Blaauwgeers, M. Blazkova, M. Človečko, V. B. Eltsov, R. de Graaf, J. Hosio, M. Krusius, D. Schmoranzer, W. Schoepe, L. Skrbek, P. Skyba, R. E. Solntsev, and D. E. Zmeev. 2007. Quartz tuning fork: Thermometer, pressure- and viscometer for helium liquids. Journal of Low Temperature Physics, volume 146, numbers 5-6, pages 537-562. en
dc.relation.haspart [Publication 9]: M. Blažková, M. Človečko, V. B. Eltsov, E. Gažo, R. de Graaf, J. J. Hosio, M. Krusius, D. Schmoranzer, W. Schoepe, L. Skrbek, P. Skyba, R. E. Solntsev, and W. F. Vinen. 2008. Vibrating quartz fork—A tool for cryogenic helium research. Journal of Low Temperature Physics, volume 150, numbers 3-4, pages 525-535. en
dc.relation.haspart [Publication 10]: V. B. Eltsov, R. de Graaf, R. Hänninen, M. Krusius, and R. E. Solntsev. 2008. Experiments on the twisted vortex state in superfluid 3He-B. Journal of Low Temperature Physics, volume 150, numbers 3-4, pages 373-383. en
dc.relation.haspart [Publication 11]: V. B. Eltsov, R. de Graaf, M. Krusius, and D. E. Zmeev. 2011. Vortex core contribution to textural energy in 3He–B below 0.4 Tc. Journal of Low Temperature Physics, volume 162, numbers 3-4, pages 212-225. en
dc.subject.other Physics
dc.title Dynamics of quantized vortices in applied flow in superfluid 3He-B en
dc.type G5 Artikkeliväitöskirja fi
dc.contributor.school Perustieteiden korkeakoulu fi
dc.contributor.department O.V. Lounasmaa Laboratory en
dc.contributor.department O.V. Lounasmaa -laboratorio fi
dc.subject.keyword superfluids en
dc.subject.keyword helium en
dc.subject.keyword vortex dynamics en
dc.subject.keyword front propagation en
dc.subject.keyword aminar en
dc.subject.keyword turbulence en
dc.subject.keyword Reynolds number en
dc.subject.keyword nuclear magnetic resonance en
dc.subject.keyword quartz tuning fork en
dc.identifier.urn URN:ISBN:978-952-60-4108-7
dc.type.dcmitype text en
dc.type.ontasot Väitöskirja (artikkeli) fi
dc.type.ontasot Doctoral dissertation (article-based) en
dc.contributor.supervisor Kaivola, Matti, Prof.


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