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Pathways to carbon-neutral cities prior to a national policy

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dc.contributor Aalto-yliopisto fi
dc.contributor Aalto University en
dc.contributor.author Laine, Jani
dc.contributor.author Heinonen, Jukka
dc.contributor.author Junnila, Seppo
dc.date.accessioned 2020-04-28T06:50:06Z
dc.date.available 2020-04-28T06:50:06Z
dc.date.issued 2020-03-02
dc.identifier.citation Laine , J , Heinonen , J & Junnila , S 2020 , ' Pathways to carbon-neutral cities prior to a national policy ' , Sustainability (Switzerland) , vol. 12 , no. 6 , 2445 . https://doi.org/10.3390/su12062445 en
dc.identifier.issn 2071-1050
dc.identifier.other PURE UUID: 826f57f9-35a5-436c-96ef-4620315879e6
dc.identifier.other PURE ITEMURL: https://research.aalto.fi/en/publications/826f57f9-35a5-436c-96ef-4620315879e6
dc.identifier.other PURE LINK: http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85082804687&partnerID=8YFLogxK
dc.identifier.other PURE FILEURL: https://research.aalto.fi/files/42178588/sustainability_12_02445_v2.pdf
dc.identifier.uri https://aaltodoc.aalto.fi/handle/123456789/43887
dc.description.abstract Some cities have set carbon neutrality targets prior to national or state-wide neutrality targets, which makes the shift to carbon neutrality more difficult, as the surrounding system does not support this. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate different options for a progressive city to reach carbon neutrality in energy prior to the surrounding system. The study followed the C40 Cities definition of a carbon-neutral city and used the City of Vantaa in Finland as a progressive case aiming for carbon neutrality by 2030, five years before the national target for carbon neutrality. The study mapped the carbon neutrality process based on City documents and national statistics, and validated it through process-owner interviews. It was identified that most of the measures in the carbon neutrality process were actually outside the jurisdiction of the City, which outsources the responsibility for the majority of carbon neutrality actions to either private properties or national actors with broader boundaries. Theonly major measure in the City's direct control was the removal of carbon emissions from municipal district heat production, which potentially represent 30% of the City's reported carbon emissions and 58% of its energy-related carbon emissions. Interestingly, the City owns electricity production capacity within and beyond the city borders, but it doesn't allocate it for itself. Allocation would significantly increase the control over the City's own actions regarding carbon neutrality. Thus, it is proposed that cities aiming for carbon neutrality should promote and advance allocable carbon-free energy production, regardless of geographical location, as one of the central methods of achieving carbon neutrality. en
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)
dc.relation.ispartofseries Sustainability (Switzerland) en
dc.relation.ispartofseries Volume 12, issue 6 en
dc.rights openAccess en
dc.title Pathways to carbon-neutral cities prior to a national policy en
dc.type A1 Alkuperäisartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä fi
dc.description.version Peer reviewed en
dc.contributor.department Department of Built Environment
dc.contributor.department University of Iceland
dc.subject.keyword C40 Cities
dc.subject.keyword Carbon neutral cities
dc.subject.keyword GHG Protocol
dc.subject.keyword Greenhouse gas emissions
dc.subject.keyword Sustainable built environment
dc.identifier.urn URN:NBN:fi:aalto-202004282886
dc.identifier.doi 10.3390/su12062445
dc.type.version publishedVersion

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