First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. III. Data Processing and Calibration

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dc.contributor Aalto-yliopisto fi
dc.contributor Aalto University en
dc.contributor.author Akiyama, Kazunori
dc.contributor.author Alberdi, Antxon
dc.contributor.author Alef, Walter
dc.contributor.author Asada, Keiichi
dc.contributor.author Azulay, Rebecca
dc.contributor.author Baczko, Anne Kathrin
dc.contributor.author Ball, David
dc.contributor.author Baloković, Mislav
dc.contributor.author Barrett, John
dc.contributor.author Bintley, Dan
dc.contributor.author Blackburn, Lindy
dc.contributor.author Boland, Wilfred
dc.contributor.author Bouman, Katherine L.
dc.contributor.author Bower, Geoffrey C.
dc.contributor.author Bremer, Michael
dc.contributor.author Brinkerink, Christiaan D.
dc.contributor.author Brissenden, Roger
dc.contributor.author Britzen, Silke
dc.contributor.author Broderick, Avery E.
dc.contributor.author Broguiere, Dominique
dc.contributor.author Bronzwaer, Thomas
dc.contributor.author Byun, Do Young
dc.contributor.author Carlstrom, John E.
dc.contributor.author Chael, Andrew
dc.contributor.author Chan, Chi Kwan
dc.contributor.author Chatterjee, Shami
dc.contributor.author Chatterjee, Koushik
dc.contributor.author Chen, Ming Tang
dc.contributor.author Chen, Yongjun
dc.contributor.author Cho, Ilje
dc.contributor.author Christian, Pierre
dc.contributor.author Conway, John E.
dc.contributor.author Cordes, James M.
dc.contributor.author Crew, Geoffrey B.
dc.contributor.author Cui, Yuzhu
dc.contributor.author Davelaar, Jordy
dc.contributor.author De Laurentis, Mariafelicia
dc.contributor.author Deane, Roger
dc.contributor.author Dempsey, Jessica
dc.contributor.author Desvignes, Gregory
dc.contributor.author Dexter, Jason
dc.contributor.author Doeleman, Sheperd S.
dc.contributor.author Eatough, Ralph P.
dc.contributor.author Falcke, Heino
dc.contributor.author Fish, Vincent L.
dc.contributor.author Fomalont, Ed
dc.contributor.author Fraga-Encinas, Raquel
dc.contributor.author Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh
dc.contributor.author Savolainen, Tuomas
dc.contributor.author Wagner, Jan
dc.date.accessioned 2019-05-06T09:27:40Z
dc.date.available 2019-05-06T09:27:40Z
dc.date.issued 2019-04-10
dc.identifier.citation Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration & Savolainen , T 2019 , ' First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. III. Data Processing and Calibration ' Astrophysical Journal Letters , vol. 875 , no. 1 , L3 . https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/ab0c57 en
dc.identifier.issn 2041-8205
dc.identifier.issn 2041-8213
dc.identifier.other PURE UUID: f0ad38b6-01b8-4e8e-b3ca-912437ca5696
dc.identifier.other PURE ITEMURL: https://research.aalto.fi/en/publications/first-m87-event-horizon-telescope-results-iii-data-processing-and-calibration(f0ad38b6-01b8-4e8e-b3ca-912437ca5696).html
dc.identifier.other PURE LINK: http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85064448206&partnerID=8YFLogxK
dc.identifier.other PURE FILEURL: https://research.aalto.fi/files/33461524/ELEC_Savolainen_The_Event_Horizon_Telescope_Collaboration_2019_ApJL_875_L3.pdf
dc.identifier.uri https://aaltodoc.aalto.fi/handle/123456789/37801
dc.description.abstract We present the calibration and reduction of Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) 1.3 mm radio wavelength observations of the supermassive black hole candidate at the center of the radio galaxy M87 and the quasar 3C 279, taken during the 2017 April 5-11 observing campaign. These global very long baseline interferometric observations include for the first time the highly sensitive Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA); reaching an angular resolution of 25 μas, with characteristic sensitivity limits of ∼1 mJy on baselines to ALMA and ∼10 mJy on other baselines. The observations present challenges for existing data processing tools, arising from the rapid atmospheric phase fluctuations, wide recording bandwidth, and highly heterogeneous array. In response, we developed three independent pipelines for phase calibration and fringe detection, each tailored to the specific needs of the EHT. The final data products include calibrated total intensity amplitude and phase information. They are validated through a series of quality assurance tests that show consistency across pipelines and set limits on baseline systematic errors of 2% in amplitude and 1° in phase. The M87 data reveal the presence of two nulls in correlated flux density at ∼3.4 and ∼8.3 Gλ and temporal evolution in closure quantities, indicating intrinsic variability of compact structure on a timescale of days, or several light-crossing times for a few billion solar-mass black hole. These measurements provide the first opportunity to image horizon-scale structure in M87. en
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher IOP Publishing Ltd.
dc.relation.ispartofseries Astrophysical Journal Letters en
dc.relation.ispartofseries Volume 875, issue 1 en
dc.rights openAccess en
dc.subject.other Astronomy and Astrophysics en
dc.subject.other Space and Planetary Science en
dc.subject.other 115 Astronomy and space science en
dc.title First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. III. Data Processing and Calibration en
dc.type A1 Alkuperäisartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä fi
dc.description.version Peer reviewed en
dc.contributor.department National Radio Astronomy Observatory Socorro
dc.contributor.department CSIC
dc.contributor.department Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy
dc.contributor.department National Taiwan University
dc.contributor.department University of Arizona
dc.contributor.department Harvard University
dc.contributor.department Massachusetts Institute of Technology
dc.contributor.department East Asian Observatory
dc.contributor.department Nederlandse Onderzoekschool voor Astronomie
dc.contributor.department Academia Sinica Taiwan
dc.contributor.department Institut de Radio Astronomie Millimétrique
dc.contributor.department Radboud University Nijmegen
dc.contributor.department Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics
dc.contributor.department Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute
dc.contributor.department University of Chicago
dc.contributor.department Cornell University
dc.contributor.department University of Amsterdam
dc.contributor.department CAS - Shanghai Astronomical Observatory
dc.contributor.department Chalmers University of Technology
dc.contributor.department National Astronomical Observatory of Japan
dc.contributor.department University of Naples Federico II
dc.contributor.department University of Pretoria
dc.contributor.department Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics
dc.contributor.department Universidad de Concepcion
dc.contributor.department Anne Lähteenmäki Group
dc.contributor.department Department of Electronics and Nanoengineering en
dc.subject.keyword black hole physics
dc.subject.keyword galaxies: individual (M87, 3C279)
dc.subject.keyword galaxies: jets
dc.subject.keyword techniques: high angular resolution
dc.subject.keyword techniques: interferometric
dc.subject.keyword Astronomy and Astrophysics
dc.subject.keyword Space and Planetary Science
dc.subject.keyword 115 Astronomy and space science
dc.identifier.urn URN:NBN:fi:aalto-201905062918
dc.identifier.doi 10.3847/2041-8213/ab0c57
dc.type.version publishedVersion


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