First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. III. Data Processing and Calibration

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dc.contributor Aalto-yliopisto fi
dc.contributor Aalto University en Akiyama, Kazunori Alberdi, Antxon Alef, Walter Asada, Keiichi Azulay, Rebecca Baczko, Anne Kathrin Ball, David Baloković, Mislav Barrett, John Bintley, Dan Blackburn, Lindy Boland, Wilfred Bouman, Katherine L. Bower, Geoffrey C. Bremer, Michael Brinkerink, Christiaan D. Brissenden, Roger Britzen, Silke Broderick, Avery E. Broguiere, Dominique Bronzwaer, Thomas Byun, Do Young Carlstrom, John E. Chael, Andrew Chan, Chi Kwan Chatterjee, Shami Chatterjee, Koushik Chen, Ming Tang Chen, Yongjun Cho, Ilje Christian, Pierre Conway, John E. Cordes, James M. Crew, Geoffrey B. Cui, Yuzhu Davelaar, Jordy De Laurentis, Mariafelicia Deane, Roger Dempsey, Jessica Desvignes, Gregory Dexter, Jason Doeleman, Sheperd S. Eatough, Ralph P. Falcke, Heino Fish, Vincent L. Fomalont, Ed Fraga-Encinas, Raquel Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh Savolainen, Tuomas Wagner, Jan 2019-05-06T09:27:40Z 2019-05-06T09:27:40Z 2019-04-10
dc.identifier.citation Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration & Savolainen , T 2019 , ' First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. III. Data Processing and Calibration ' Astrophysical Journal Letters , vol. 875 , no. 1 , L3 . en
dc.identifier.issn 2041-8205
dc.identifier.issn 2041-8213
dc.identifier.other PURE UUID: f0ad38b6-01b8-4e8e-b3ca-912437ca5696
dc.identifier.other PURE ITEMURL:
dc.identifier.other PURE LINK:
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dc.description.abstract We present the calibration and reduction of Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) 1.3 mm radio wavelength observations of the supermassive black hole candidate at the center of the radio galaxy M87 and the quasar 3C 279, taken during the 2017 April 5-11 observing campaign. These global very long baseline interferometric observations include for the first time the highly sensitive Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA); reaching an angular resolution of 25 μas, with characteristic sensitivity limits of ∼1 mJy on baselines to ALMA and ∼10 mJy on other baselines. The observations present challenges for existing data processing tools, arising from the rapid atmospheric phase fluctuations, wide recording bandwidth, and highly heterogeneous array. In response, we developed three independent pipelines for phase calibration and fringe detection, each tailored to the specific needs of the EHT. The final data products include calibrated total intensity amplitude and phase information. They are validated through a series of quality assurance tests that show consistency across pipelines and set limits on baseline systematic errors of 2% in amplitude and 1° in phase. The M87 data reveal the presence of two nulls in correlated flux density at ∼3.4 and ∼8.3 Gλ and temporal evolution in closure quantities, indicating intrinsic variability of compact structure on a timescale of days, or several light-crossing times for a few billion solar-mass black hole. These measurements provide the first opportunity to image horizon-scale structure in M87. en
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher IOP Publishing Ltd.
dc.relation.ispartofseries Astrophysical Journal Letters en
dc.relation.ispartofseries Volume 875, issue 1 en
dc.rights openAccess en
dc.subject.other Astronomy and Astrophysics en
dc.subject.other Space and Planetary Science en
dc.subject.other 115 Astronomy and space science en
dc.title First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. III. Data Processing and Calibration en
dc.type A1 Alkuperäisartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä fi
dc.description.version Peer reviewed en
dc.contributor.department National Radio Astronomy Observatory Socorro
dc.contributor.department CSIC
dc.contributor.department Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy
dc.contributor.department National Taiwan University
dc.contributor.department University of Arizona
dc.contributor.department Harvard University
dc.contributor.department Massachusetts Institute of Technology
dc.contributor.department East Asian Observatory
dc.contributor.department Nederlandse Onderzoekschool voor Astronomie
dc.contributor.department Academia Sinica Taiwan
dc.contributor.department Institut de Radio Astronomie Millimétrique
dc.contributor.department Radboud University Nijmegen
dc.contributor.department Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics
dc.contributor.department Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute
dc.contributor.department University of Chicago
dc.contributor.department Cornell University
dc.contributor.department University of Amsterdam
dc.contributor.department CAS - Shanghai Astronomical Observatory
dc.contributor.department Chalmers University of Technology
dc.contributor.department National Astronomical Observatory of Japan
dc.contributor.department University of Naples Federico II
dc.contributor.department University of Pretoria
dc.contributor.department Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics
dc.contributor.department Universidad de Concepcion
dc.contributor.department Anne Lähteenmäki Group
dc.contributor.department Department of Electronics and Nanoengineering en
dc.subject.keyword black hole physics
dc.subject.keyword galaxies: individual (M87, 3C279)
dc.subject.keyword galaxies: jets
dc.subject.keyword techniques: high angular resolution
dc.subject.keyword techniques: interferometric
dc.subject.keyword Astronomy and Astrophysics
dc.subject.keyword Space and Planetary Science
dc.subject.keyword 115 Astronomy and space science
dc.identifier.urn URN:NBN:fi:aalto-201905062918
dc.identifier.doi 10.3847/2041-8213/ab0c57
dc.type.version publishedVersion

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