Analyzing national and local pathways to carbon-neutrality from technology, emissions, and resilience perspectives—Case of Finland

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dc.contributor Aalto-yliopisto fi
dc.contributor Aalto University en Pilpola, Sannamari Arabzadeh, Vahid Mikkola, Jani Lund, Peter D. 2019-05-06T09:24:41Z 2019-05-06T09:24:41Z 2019-01-01
dc.identifier.citation Pilpola , S , Arabzadeh , V , Mikkola , J & Lund , P D 2019 , ' Analyzing national and local pathways to carbon-neutrality from technology, emissions, and resilience perspectives—Case of Finland ' Energies , vol. 12 , no. 5 , 949 . en
dc.identifier.issn 1996-1073
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dc.identifier.other PURE ITEMURL:
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dc.description.abstract The Paris Climate Accord calls for urgent CO 2 reductions. Here we investigate low and zero carbon pathways based on clean electricity and sector coupling. Effects from different spatialities are considered through city and national cases (Helsinki and Finland). The methodology employs techno-economic energy system optimization, including resilience aspects. In the Finnish case, wind, nuclear, and biomass coupled to power-to-heat and other flexibility measures could provide a cost-effective carbon-neutral pathway (annual costs −18%), but nuclear and wind are, to some extent, exclusionary. A (near) carbon-neutral energy system seems possible even without nuclear (−94% CO 2 ). Zero-carbon energy production benefits from a stronger link to the broader electricity market albeit flexibility measures. On the city level, wind would not easily replace local combined heat and power (CHP), but may increase electricity export. In the Helsinki case, a business-as-usual approach could halve emissions and annual costs, while in a comprehensive zero-emission approach, the operating costs (OPEX) could decrease by 87%. Generally, electrification of heat production could be effective to reduce CO 2 . Low or zero carbon solutions have a positive impact on resilience, but in the heating sector this is more problematic, e.g., power outage and adequacy of supply during peak demand will require more attention when planning future carbon-free energy systems. en
dc.format.extent 22
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher MDPI AG
dc.relation.ispartofseries Energies en
dc.relation.ispartofseries Volume 12, issue 5 en
dc.rights openAccess en
dc.subject.other Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment en
dc.subject.other Energy Engineering and Power Technology en
dc.subject.other Energy (miscellaneous) en
dc.subject.other Control and Optimization en
dc.subject.other Electrical and Electronic Engineering en
dc.subject.other 218 Environmental engineering en
dc.subject.other renewable energy en
dc.title Analyzing national and local pathways to carbon-neutrality from technology, emissions, and resilience perspectives—Case of Finland en
dc.type A1 Alkuperäisartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä fi
dc.description.version Peer reviewed en
dc.contributor.department New Energy Technologies
dc.contributor.department Department of Applied Physics
dc.subject.keyword Carbon neutrality
dc.subject.keyword Energy system modelling
dc.subject.keyword Photovoltaics
dc.subject.keyword Renewable energy
dc.subject.keyword Sector coupling
dc.subject.keyword Urban energy
dc.subject.keyword Wind power
dc.subject.keyword Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
dc.subject.keyword Energy Engineering and Power Technology
dc.subject.keyword Energy (miscellaneous)
dc.subject.keyword Control and Optimization
dc.subject.keyword Electrical and Electronic Engineering
dc.subject.keyword 218 Environmental engineering
dc.subject.keyword renewable energy
dc.identifier.urn URN:NBN:fi:aalto-201905062903
dc.identifier.doi 10.3390/en12050949
dc.type.version publishedVersion

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