Environmental impact assessment of online advertising

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dc.contributor Aalto-yliopisto fi
dc.contributor Aalto University en
dc.contributor.author Pärssinen, Matti
dc.contributor.author Kotila, M.
dc.contributor.author Cuevas, R.
dc.contributor.author Phansalkar, A
dc.contributor.author Manner, Jukka
dc.date.accessioned 2018-10-16T08:53:32Z
dc.date.available 2018-10-16T08:53:32Z
dc.date.issued 2018-11
dc.identifier.citation Pärssinen , M , Kotila , M , Cuevas , R , Phansalkar , A & Manner , J 2018 , ' Environmental impact assessment of online advertising ' ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT REVIEW , vol 73 , pp. 177-200 . DOI: 10.1016/j.eiar.2018.08.004 en
dc.identifier.issn 0195-9255
dc.identifier.other PURE UUID: 1b93e32f-b735-48c6-bc09-fff7673df567
dc.identifier.other PURE ITEMURL: https://research.aalto.fi/en/publications/environmental-impact-assessment-of-online-advertising(1b93e32f-b735-48c6-bc09-fff7673df567).html
dc.identifier.other PURE FILEURL: https://research.aalto.fi/files/28401963/ELEC_Manner_et_al_Environmental_impact.pdf
dc.identifier.uri https://aaltodoc.aalto.fi/handle/123456789/34258
dc.description.abstract There are no commonly agreed ways to assess the total energy consumption of the Internet. Estimating the Internet's energy footprint is challenging because of the interconnectedness associated with even seemingly simple aspects of energy consumption. The first contribution of this paper is a common modular and layered framework, which allows researchers to assess both energy consumption and CO2e emissions of any Internet service. The framework allows assessing the energy consumption depending on the research scope and specific system boundaries. Further, the proposed framework allows researchers without domain expertise to make such an assessment by using intermediate results as data sources, while analyzing the related uncertainties. The second contribution is an estimate of the energy consumption and CO2e emissions of online advertising by utilizing our proposed framework. The third contribution is an assessment of the energy consumption of invalid traffic associated with online advertising. The second and third contributions are used to validate the first. The online advertising ecosystem resides in the core of the Internet, and it is the sole source of funding for many online services. Therefore, it is an essential factor in the analysis of the Internet's energy footprint. As a result, in 2016, online advertising consumed 20–282 TWh of energy. In the same year, the total infrastructure consumption ranged from 791 to 1334 TWh. With extrapolated 2016 input factor values without uncertainties, online advertising consumed 106 TWh of energy and the infrastructure 1059 TWh. With the emission factor of 0.5656 kg CO2e/kWh, we calculated the carbon emissions of online advertising, and found it produces 60 Mt CO2e (between 12 and 159 Mt of CO2e when considering uncertainty). The share of fraudulent online advertising traffic was 13.87 Mt of CO2e emissions (between 2.65 and 36.78 Mt of CO2e when considering uncertainty). The global impact of online advertising is multidimensional. Online advertising affects theenvironment by consuming significant amounts of energy, leading to the production CO2e emissions. Hundreds of billions of ad dollars are exchanged yearly, placing online advertising in a significant role economically. It has become an important and acknowledged component of the online-bound society, largely due to its integration with the Internet and the amount of revenue generated through it. en
dc.format.extent 177-200
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso en en
dc.relation.ispartofseries ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT REVIEW en
dc.relation.ispartofseries Volume 73 en
dc.rights openAccess en
dc.subject.other Computer Networks and Communications en
dc.subject.other 113 Computer and information sciences en
dc.subject.other 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics en
dc.subject.other Computer science en
dc.subject.other Communications engineering en
dc.subject.other green technology en
dc.title Environmental impact assessment of online advertising en
dc.type A1 Alkuperäisartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä fi
dc.description.version Peer reviewed en
dc.contributor.department School common, ELEC
dc.contributor.department Botlab
dc.contributor.department Universidad Carlos III de Madrid
dc.contributor.department Department of Communications and Networking
dc.subject.keyword Internet energy consumption CO2 emission Online advertising Invalid traffic
dc.subject.keyword CO2 emission
dc.subject.keyword online advertising
dc.subject.keyword Invalid traffic
dc.subject.keyword Computer Networks and Communications
dc.subject.keyword 113 Computer and information sciences
dc.subject.keyword 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
dc.subject.keyword Computer science
dc.subject.keyword Communications engineering
dc.subject.keyword green technology
dc.identifier.urn URN:NBN:fi:aalto-201810165335
dc.identifier.doi 10.1016/j.eiar.2018.08.004
dc.type.version publishedVersion


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