Predictable quantum efficient detector based on n-type silicon photodiodes

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dc.contributor Aalto-yliopisto fi
dc.contributor Aalto University en
dc.contributor.author Dönsberg, Timo
dc.contributor.author Manoocheri, Farshid
dc.contributor.author Sildoja, Meelis
dc.contributor.author Juntunen, Mikko
dc.contributor.author Savin, Hele
dc.contributor.author Tuovinen, Esa
dc.contributor.author Ronkainen, Hannu
dc.contributor.author Prunnila, Mika
dc.contributor.author Merimaa, Mikko
dc.contributor.author Tang, Chi Kwong
dc.contributor.author Gran, Jarle
dc.contributor.author Mueller, Ingmar
dc.contributor.author Werner, Lutz
dc.contributor.author Rougie, Bernard
dc.contributor.author Pons, Alicia
dc.contributor.author Smid, Marek
dc.contributor.author Gal, Peter
dc.contributor.author Lolli, Lapo
dc.contributor.author Brida, Giorgio
dc.contributor.author Rastello, Maria Luisa
dc.contributor.author Ikonen, Erkki
dc.date.accessioned 2017-11-21T13:34:15Z
dc.date.available 2017-11-21T13:34:15Z
dc.date.issued 2017-12
dc.identifier.citation Dönsberg , T , Manoocheri , F , Sildoja , M , Juntunen , M , Savin , H , Tuovinen , E , Ronkainen , H , Prunnila , M , Merimaa , M , Tang , C K , Gran , J , Mueller , I , Werner , L , Rougie , B , Pons , A , Smid , M , Gal , P , Lolli , L , Brida , G , Rastello , M L & Ikonen , E 2017 , ' Predictable quantum efficient detector based on n-type silicon photodiodes ' Metrologia , vol 54 , no. 6 , pp. 821-836 . DOI: 10.1088/1681-7575/aa85ed en
dc.identifier.issn 0026-1394
dc.identifier.issn 1681-7575
dc.identifier.other PURE UUID: 0440f558-42f6-459c-a0e3-5da3a641bbec
dc.identifier.other PURE ITEMURL: https://research.aalto.fi/en/publications/predictable-quantum-efficient-detector-based-on-ntype-silicon-photodiodes(0440f558-42f6-459c-a0e3-5da3a641bbec).html
dc.identifier.other PURE FILEURL: https://research.aalto.fi/files/15943633/Donsberg_2017_Metrologia_54_821.pdf
dc.identifier.uri https://aaltodoc.aalto.fi/handle/123456789/28749
dc.description.abstract The predictable quantum efficient detector (PQED) consists of two custom-made induced junction photodiodes that are mounted in a wedged trap configuration for the reduction of reflectance losses. Until now, all manufactured PQED photodiodes have been based on a structure where a SiO2 layer is thermally grown on top of p-type silicon substrate. In this paper, we present the design, manufacturing, modelling and characterization of a new type of PQED, where the photodiodes have an Al2O3 layer on top of n-type silicon substrate. Atomic layer deposition is used to deposit the layer to the desired thickness. Two sets of photodiodes with varying oxide thicknesses and substrate doping concentrations were fabricated. In order to predict recombination losses of charge carriers, a 3D model of the photodiode was built into Cogenda Genius semiconductor simulation software. It is important to note that a novel experimental method was developed to obtain values for the 3D model parameters. This makes the prediction of the PQED responsivity a completely autonomous process. Detectors were characterized for temperature dependence of dark current, spatial uniformity of responsivity, reflectance, linearity and absolute responsivity at the wavelengths of 488 nm and 532 nm. For both sets of photodiodes, the modelled and measured responsivities were generally in agreement within the measurement and modelling uncertainties of around 100 parts per million (ppm). There is, however, an indication that the modelled internal quantum deficiency may be underestimated by a similar amount. Moreover, the responsivities of the detectors were spatially uniform within 30 ppm peak-to-peak variation. The results obtained in this research indicate that the n-type induced junction photodiode is a very promising alternative to the existing p-type detectors, and thus give additional credibility to the concept of modelled quantum detector serving as a primary standard. Furthermore, the manufacturing of PQEDs is no longer dependent on the availability of a certain type of very lightly doped p-type silicon wafers. en
dc.format.extent 16
dc.format.extent 821-836
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso en en
dc.relation.ispartofseries Metrologia en
dc.relation.ispartofseries Volume 54, issue 6 en
dc.rights openAccess en
dc.subject.other 114 Physical sciences en
dc.subject.other 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics en
dc.title Predictable quantum efficient detector based on n-type silicon photodiodes en
dc.type A1 Alkuperäisartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä fi
dc.description.version Peer reviewed en
dc.contributor.department Department of Signal Processing and Acoustics
dc.contributor.department Department of Electronics and Nanoengineering
dc.contributor.department VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
dc.contributor.department Justervesenet
dc.contributor.department Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB)
dc.contributor.department Laboratoire Commun de Métrologie LNE-CNAM
dc.contributor.department CSIC
dc.contributor.department Czech Metrology Institute
dc.contributor.department Magyar Kereskedelmi Engedélyezési Hivatal (MKEH)
dc.contributor.department INRiM
dc.subject.keyword radiometry
dc.subject.keyword induced junction
dc.subject.keyword silicon photodetector
dc.subject.keyword primary standard
dc.subject.keyword radiant flux
dc.subject.keyword ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION
dc.subject.keyword RESPONSE SELF-CALIBRATION
dc.subject.keyword INDUCED-JUNCTION
dc.subject.keyword CRYOGENIC RADIOMETER
dc.subject.keyword ROOM-TEMPERATURE
dc.subject.keyword INVERSION LAYER
dc.subject.keyword ABSOLUTE
dc.subject.keyword ACCURACY
dc.subject.keyword NONLINEARITY
dc.subject.keyword METROLOGY
dc.subject.keyword 114 Physical sciences
dc.subject.keyword 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
dc.identifier.urn URN:NBN:fi:aalto-201711217570
dc.identifier.doi 10.1088/1681-7575/aa85ed
dc.type.version publishedVersion


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