Water-Resistant, Transparent Hybrid Nanopaper by Physical Cross-Linking with Chitosan

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dc.contributor Aalto-yliopisto fi
dc.contributor Aalto University en
dc.contributor.author Toivonen, Matti S.
dc.contributor.author Kurki-Suonio, Sauli
dc.contributor.author Schacher, Felix H.
dc.contributor.author Hietala, Sami
dc.contributor.author Rojas, Orlando J.
dc.contributor.author Ikkala, Olli
dc.date.accessioned 2017-05-31T06:02:45Z
dc.date.available 2017-05-31T06:02:45Z
dc.date.issued 2015
dc.identifier.citation Toivonen , M S , Kurki-Suonio , S , Schacher , F H , Hietala , S , Rojas , O J & Ikkala , O 2015 , ' Water-Resistant, Transparent Hybrid Nanopaper by Physical Cross-Linking with Chitosan ' , Biomacromolecules , vol. 16 , no. 3 , pp. 1062-1071 . https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.biomac.5b00145 en
dc.identifier.issn 1525-7797
dc.identifier.issn 1526-4602
dc.identifier.other PURE UUID: 795f5bca-6146-4d4a-9800-df9f41288d58
dc.identifier.other PURE ITEMURL: https://research.aalto.fi/en/publications/waterresistant-transparent-hybrid-nanopaper-by-physical-crosslinking-with-chitosan(795f5bca-6146-4d4a-9800-df9f41288d58).html
dc.identifier.other PURE FILEURL: https://research.aalto.fi/files/12992715/MT_NFC_chitosan_nanopaper_manuscript_1st_review.pdf
dc.identifier.uri https://aaltodoc.aalto.fi/handle/123456789/26516
dc.description.abstract One of the major, but often overlooked, challenges toward high end applications of nanocelluloses is to maintain their high mechanical properties under hydrated or even fully wet conditions. As such, permanent covalent cross-linking or surface hydrophobization are viable approaches, however, the former may hamper processability and the latter may have adverse effect on interfibrillar bonding and resulting material strength. Here we show a concept based on physical cross-linking of cellulose nanofibers (CNF, also denoted as microfibrillated cellulose, MFC, and, nanofibrillated cellulose, NFC) with chitosan for the aqueous preparation of films showing high mechanical strength in the wet state. Also, transparency (∼70–90% in the range 400–800 nm) is achieved by suppressing aggregation and carefully controlling the mixing conditions: Chitosan dissolves in aqueous medium at low pH and under these conditions the CNF/chitosan mixtures form easily processable hydrogels. A simple change in the environmental conditions(i.e., an increase of pH) reduces hydration of chitosan promoting multivalent physical interactions between CNF and chitosan over those with water, resulting effectively in cross-linking. Wet water-soaked films of CNF/chitosan 80/20 w/w show excellent mechanical properties, with an ultimate wet strength of 100 MPa (with corresponding maximum strain of 28%) and a tensile modulus of 4 and 14 GPa at low (0.5%) and large (16%) strains, respectively. More dry films of similar composition display strength of 200 MPa with maximum strain of 8% at 50% air relative humidity. We expect that the proposed, simple concept opens new pathways toward CNF-based material utilization in wet or humid conditions, which has still remained a challenge. en
dc.format.extent 1062-1071
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso en en
dc.relation.ispartofseries BIOMACROMOLECULES en
dc.relation.ispartofseries Volume 16, issue 3 en
dc.rights openAccess en
dc.subject.other 216 Materials engineering en
dc.subject.other 114 Physical sciences en
dc.subject.other 215 Chemical engineering en
dc.subject.other 221 Nanotechnology en
dc.subject.other 214 Mechanical engineering en
dc.subject.other 218 Environmental engineering en
dc.title Water-Resistant, Transparent Hybrid Nanopaper by Physical Cross-Linking with Chitosan en
dc.type A1 Alkuperäisartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä fi
dc.description.version Peer reviewed en
dc.contributor.department Department of Forest Products Technology en
dc.contributor.department Department of Applied Physics en
dc.subject.keyword 216 Materials engineering
dc.subject.keyword 114 Physical sciences
dc.subject.keyword 215 Chemical engineering
dc.subject.keyword 221 Nanotechnology
dc.subject.keyword 214 Mechanical engineering
dc.subject.keyword 218 Environmental engineering
dc.identifier.urn URN:NBN:fi:aalto-201705315131
dc.identifier.doi 10.1021/acs.biomac.5b00145
dc.type.version acceptedVersion

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