Impact of xylose and mannose on central metabolism of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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dc.contributor Aalto-yliopisto fi
dc.contributor Aalto University en Pitkänen, Juha-Pekka 2012-02-17T07:19:05Z 2012-02-17T07:19:05Z 2005-11-18
dc.identifier.isbn 951-22-7894-4
dc.identifier.issn 0359-6621
dc.description.abstract In this study, understanding of the central metabolism was improved by quantification of metabolite concentrations, enzyme activities, protein abundances, and gene transcript concentrations. Intracellular fluxes were estimated by applying stoichiometric models of metabolism. The methods were applied in the study of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in two separate projects. A xylose project aimed at improved utilization of D-xylose as a substrate for, e.g., producing biomaterial-based fuel ethanol. A mannose project studied the production of GDP-mannose from D-mannose in a strain lacking the gene for phosphomannose isomerase (PMI40 deletion). Hexose, D-glucose is the only sugar more abundant than pentose D-xylose. D-xylose is common in hardwoods (e.g. birch) and crop residues (ca. 25% of dry weight). However, S. cerevisiae is unable to utilize D-xylose without a recombinant pathway where D-xylose is converted to D-xylulose. In this study D-xylose was converted in two steps via xylitol: by D-xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase encoded by XYL1 and XYL2 from Pichia stipitis, respectively. Additionally, endogenous xylulokinase (XKS1) was overexpressed in order to increase the consumption of D-xylose by enhancing the phosphorylation of D-xylulose. Despite of the functional recombinant pathway the utilization rates of D-xylose still remained low. This study proposes a set of limitations that are responsible for the low utilization rates of D-xylose under microaerobic conditions. Cells compensated for the cofactor imbalance, caused by the conversion of D-xylose to D-xylulose, by increasing the flux through the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway and by shuttling NADH redox potential to mitochondrion to be oxidized in oxidative phosphorylation. However, mitochondrial NADH inhibits citrate synthase in citric acid cycle, and consequently lower flux through citric acid cycle limits oxidative phosphorylation. Further, limitations in the uptake of D-xylose, in the pentose phosphate pathway, and in the citric acid cycle were alleviated in xylose chemostat isolates with three-fold improved xylose utilization rates. Uptake rate of D-xylose, assayed in vitro with radioactive D-xylose, was improved by 60% in the chemostat isolates grown under aerobic conditions on D-xylose. In the pentose phosphate pathway activities of transketolase and transaldolase were increased two-fold, and consequently concentrations of their substrates were decreased two-fold in the chemostat isolates. Finally, less pyruvate and citrate, but more malate accumulated in the chemostat isolates than in the original strain grown on D-xylose under aerobic conditions. In a S. cerevisiae strain with PMI40 deletion, growth on media without D-mannose and D-glucose is disabled. Phosphomannose isomerase encoded by PMI40 connects D-mannose to glycolysis, which is the main pathway for D-glucose utilization. Hypothetically, a PMI40 deletion strain would direct all its D-mannose into the biosynthesis of GDP-mannose. However, in the PMI40 deletion strain increased initial D-mannose concentrations led to increased intracellular mannose 6-phosphate concentrations. Mannose 6-phosphate inhibited activity of phosphoglucose isomerase (encoded by PGI1) in glycolysis, which in essence is equivalent to suppressed expression of PGI1. Subsequently, reduced availability of glycolysis intermediates, due to inhibition of phosphoglucose isomerase, led to a decrease in the glycolytic flux. Eventually, increased initial D-mannose concentrations resulted in a starvation response, which was accompanied by slower cell cycle and slower growth rate. en
dc.format.extent 66, [84]
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher Helsinki University of Technology en
dc.publisher Teknillinen korkeakoulu fi
dc.relation.ispartofseries Technical biochemistry report en
dc.relation.ispartofseries Teknillisen biokemian tiedote fi
dc.relation.ispartofseries 10 en
dc.relation.haspart Pitkänen, J.-P., A. Aristidou, L. Salusjärvi, L. Ruohonen, and M. Penttilä. 2003. Metabolic flux analysis of xylose metabolism in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae using continuous culture. Metabolic Engineering 5: 16-31. [article1.pdf] © 2003 Elsevier Science. By permission.
dc.relation.haspart Salusjärvi, L., M. Poutanen, J.-P. Pitkänen, H. Koivistoinen, A. Aristidou, N. Kalkkinen, L. Ruohonen, and M. Penttilä. 2003. Proteome analysis of recombinant xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast 20: 295-314. [article2.pdf] © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. By permission.
dc.relation.haspart Salusjärvi, L., J.-P. Pitkänen, A. Aristidou, L. Ruohonen, and M. Penttilä. 2005. Gene expression analysis of recombinant xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals novel responses to xylose as a carbon source. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, accepted for publication.
dc.relation.haspart Pitkänen, J.-P., E. Rintala, A. Aristidou, L. Ruohonen, and M. Penttilä. 2005. Xylose chemostat isolates of Saccharomyces cerevisiae show altered metabolite and enzyme levels compared with xylose, glucose, and ethanol metabolism of the original strain. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 67: 827-837.
dc.relation.haspart Pitkänen, J.-P., A. Törmä, S. Alff, L. Huopaniemi, P. Mattila, and R. Renkonen. 2004. Excess mannose limits the growth of phosphomannose isomerase PMI40 deletion strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 279: 55737-55743.
dc.subject.other Chemistry en
dc.subject.other Biotechnology en
dc.title Impact of xylose and mannose on central metabolism of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae en
dc.type G5 Artikkeliväitöskirja fi
dc.description.version reviewed en
dc.contributor.department Department of Chemical Technology en
dc.contributor.department Kemian tekniikan osasto fi
dc.subject.keyword Saccharomyces cerevisiae en
dc.subject.keyword yeast en
dc.subject.keyword metabolism en
dc.subject.keyword D-xylose en
dc.subject.keyword D-mannose en
dc.subject.keyword ethanol en
dc.subject.keyword GDP-mannose en
dc.subject.keyword flux analysis en
dc.subject.keyword metabolite analysis en
dc.subject.keyword transcript analysis en
dc.subject.keyword protein analysis en
dc.identifier.urn urn:nbn:fi:tkk-005865
dc.type.dcmitype text en
dc.type.ontasot Väitöskirja (artikkeli) fi
dc.type.ontasot Doctoral dissertation (article-based) en
dc.contributor.lab Laboratory of Bioprocess Engineering en
dc.contributor.lab Bioprosessitekniikan laboratorio fi

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