Perception of stereoscopic direct gaze

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dc.contributor Aalto-yliopisto fi
dc.contributor Aalto University en
dc.contributor.author Hakala, Jussi
dc.contributor.author Kätsyri, Jari
dc.contributor.author Takala, Tapio
dc.contributor.author Häkkinen, Jukka
dc.date.accessioned 2017-05-11T09:01:36Z
dc.date.available 2017-05-11T09:01:36Z
dc.date.issued 2016
dc.identifier.citation Hakala , J , Kätsyri , J , Takala , T & Häkkinen , J 2016 , ' Perception of stereoscopic direct gaze : The effects of interaxial distance and emotional facial expressions ' JOURNAL OF VISION , vol 16 , no. 9 , pp. 1-15 . DOI: 10.1167/16.9.5 en
dc.identifier.issn 1534-7362
dc.identifier.other PURE UUID: a0df36ec-d5d3-40c6-96c3-b6d853710ab5
dc.identifier.other PURE ITEMURL: https://research.aalto.fi/en/publications/perception-of-stereoscopic-direct-gaze(a0df36ec-d5d3-40c6-96c3-b6d853710ab5).html
dc.identifier.other PURE LINK: http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84993929496&partnerID=8YFLogxK
dc.identifier.other PURE FILEURL: https://research.aalto.fi/files/11454476/i1534_7362_16_9_5.pdf
dc.identifier.uri https://aaltodoc.aalto.fi/handle/123456789/25747
dc.description.abstract Gaze perception has received considerable research attention due to its importance in social interaction. The majority of recent studies have utilized monoscopic pictorial gaze stimuli. However, a monoscopic direct gaze differs from a live or stereoscopic gaze. In the monoscopic condition, both eyes of the observer receive a direct gaze, whereas in live and stereoscopic conditions, only one eye receives a direct gaze. In the present study, we examined the implications of the difference between monoscopic and stereoscopic direct gaze. Moreover, because research has shown that stereoscopy affects the emotions elicited by facial expressions, and facial expressions affect the range of directions where an observer perceives mutual gaze- the cone of gaze-we studied the interaction effect of stereoscopy and facial expressions on gaze perception. Forty observers viewed stereoscopic images wherein one eye of the observer received a direct gaze while the other eye received a horizontally averted gaze at five different angles corresponding to five interaxial distances between the cameras in stimulus acquisition. In addition to monoscopic and stereoscopic conditions, the stimuli included neutral, angry, and happy facial expressions. The observers judged the gaze direction and mutual gaze of four lookers. Our results show that the mean of the directions received by the left and right eyes approximated the perceived gaze direction in the stereoscopic semidirect gaze condition. The probability of perceiving mutual gaze in the stereoscopic condition was substantially lower compared with monoscopic direct gaze. Furthermore, stereoscopic semidirect gaze significantly widened the cone of gaze for happy facial expressions. en
dc.format.extent 15
dc.format.extent 1-15
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso en en
dc.relation.ispartofseries JOURNAL OF VISION en
dc.relation.ispartofseries Volume 16, issue 9 en
dc.rights openAccess en
dc.subject.other Ophthalmology en
dc.subject.other Sensory Systems en
dc.subject.other 113 Computer and information sciences en
dc.title Perception of stereoscopic direct gaze en
dc.type A1 Alkuperäisartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä fi
dc.description.version Peer reviewed en
dc.contributor.department Department of Computer Science
dc.contributor.department School services, SCI
dc.subject.keyword Cyclopean perception
dc.subject.keyword Emotional facial expressions
dc.subject.keyword Eye contact
dc.subject.keyword Gaze direction
dc.subject.keyword Mutual gaze
dc.subject.keyword Self-referential positivity bias
dc.subject.keyword Stereoscopy
dc.subject.keyword Ophthalmology
dc.subject.keyword Sensory Systems
dc.subject.keyword 113 Computer and information sciences
dc.identifier.urn URN:NBN:fi:aalto-201705114130
dc.identifier.doi 10.1167/16.9.5
dc.type.version publishedVersion


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