Characterisation of Schottky diodes and dielectric materials for millimeter wave and THz applications

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dc.contributor Aalto-yliopisto fi
dc.contributor Aalto University en
dc.contributor.advisor Kiuru, Tero, Dr., VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finland
dc.contributor.advisor Mallat, Juha, Dr., Aalto University, Department of Radio Science and Engineering, Finland Khanal, Subash 2017-03-08T10:00:33Z 2017-03-08T10:00:33Z 2017
dc.identifier.isbn 978-952-60-7317-0 (electronic)
dc.identifier.isbn 978-952-60-7318-7 (printed)
dc.identifier.issn 1799-4942 (electronic)
dc.identifier.issn 1799-4934 (printed)
dc.identifier.issn 1799-4934 (ISSN-L)
dc.description.abstract This thesis work contributes to two fields of research: Schottky diode characterisation and dielectric material characterisation, both for millimeter wave and THz applications. Schottky diodes are characterised for their electrical, thermal, noise and RF properties with various measurement techniques, and an easy-to-use method is introduced for the extraction of the dielectric material properties at millimeter wave frequencies. In addition, the applications of the developed thermal characterisation method for THz Schottky diodes and of the material characterisation method are presented. Schottky diode is a key component in almost all non-cryogenic mixer and frequency multiplier applications at 100−3000 GHz. In this work, a novel thermal characterisation method suitable for small THz Schottky diodes is introduced. This method is based on the transient current measurement and it enables the extraction of thermal resistances, thermal time-constants, and peak junction temperatures. The accuracy of the transient measurement setup is ensured with a developed verification routine and the characterization results are compared against an in-house measurement-based method and also against simulation results of two commercial 3-D thermal simulators. As an application, the developed characterisation method is applied to obtain the thermal performance of the Schottky based mixer and multiplier prototypes for the MetOp-SG satellite instruments. Besides thermal performance, Schottky diodes are also characterised for their low-frequency noise and RF properties. Experimental investigations are carried out to study the indication of charge trapping in the THz Schottky diodes with a small anode area. Various measurement techniques are applied including I-V, capacitance and low-frequency noise measurements. Furthermore, low-barrier Schottky diodes from ACST GmbH are characterised to study their suitability for millimeter wave mixing applications because the low-barrier height enables low LO power requirement for the mixers. The performance of such diodes is evaluated, in terms of the conversion loss and the noise temperature, in a fundamental mixing configuration with measurements and simulations. The last part of this thesis work presents the characterisation of dielectric material at millimeter wave frequencies. An easy-to-use method is introduced for the extraction of the permittivity and the loss tangent of the material sample from reflection and transmission coefficient measurements. Extraction of the material parameters are performed with two approaches. First, by using the direct comparison with the simulated S-parameter results and second, from the analytical calculations. As an application, this extraction technique is used to characterise potential substrate materials for printing millimeter wave components, e.g., antennas. en
dc.format.extent 78 + app. 44
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf en
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher Aalto University en
dc.publisher Aalto-yliopisto fi
dc.relation.ispartofseries Aalto University publication series DOCTORAL DISSERTATIONS en
dc.relation.ispartofseries 37/2017
dc.relation.haspart [Publication 1]: S. Khanal, T. Kiuru, J. Mallat, A. V. Räisänen, and T. Närhi, “New verification routine for pulsed I-V and transient current measurement setup applied to a THz Schottky diode,” The 43rd European Microwave Conference, Nuremberg, Germany, pp. 1279-1282, October 2013
dc.relation.haspart [Publication 2]: S. Khanal, T. Kiuru, A. Y. Tang, M. A. Saber, J. Mallat, J. Stake, A. V. Räisänen, and T. Närhi, “Thermal characterization of THz Schottky diodes using transient current measurements,” IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 267-276, March 2014. DOI: 10.1109/TTHZ.2014.2303982
dc.relation.haspart [Publication 3]: S. Khanal, T. Kiuru, B. Thomas, J. Mallat, C. Pinta, M. Magel, A. Walber, V. Kangas, M. Perichaud, M. Brandt, T. Närhi, and A. V. Räisänen, “Characterisation of THz Schottky diodes for MetOp-SG instruments,” The 26th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology, Boston, USA, March 2015
dc.relation.haspart [Publication 4]: S. Khanal, T. Kiuru, H. Seppä, J. Mallat, P. Piironen, and A. V. Räisänen, “Experimental investigation of traps in THz Schottky diodes,” The 9th Global Symposium on Millimeter-Waves, Espoo, Finland, June 2016. DOI: 10.1109/GSMM.2016.7500306
dc.relation.haspart [Publication 5]: S. Khanal, T. Kiuru, M. Hoefle, J. Montero, O. Cojocari, J. Mallat, P. Piironen, and A. V. Räisänen, “Characterisation of low-barrier Schottky diodes for millimeter wave mixer applications,” The 9th Global Symposium on Millimeter-Waves, Espoo, Finland, June 2016. DOI: 10.1109/GSMM.2016.7500308
dc.relation.haspart [Publication 6]: S. Khanal, T. Kiuru, J. Mallat, O. Luukkonen, and A. V. Räisänen, “Measurement of dielectric properties at 75 - 325 GHz using a vector network analyzer and full-wave simulator,” Radio Engineering Journal: Special Issue on Advanced RF Measurement, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 551-556, June 2012
dc.relation.haspart [Publication 7]: S. Khanal, V. Semkin, V. Asadchy, J. A. Laurinaho, A. Alastalo, A. Sneck, T. Mäkelä, S. Tretyakov, and A. V. Räisänen, “Towards printed millimeter-wave components: Material characterization,” The 9th Global Symposium on Millimeter-Waves, Espoo, Finland, June 2016. DOI: 10.1109/GSMM.2016.7500324
dc.subject.other Electrical engineering en
dc.title Characterisation of Schottky diodes and dielectric materials for millimeter wave and THz applications en
dc.type G5 Artikkeliväitöskirja fi Sähkötekniikan korkeakoulu fi School of Electrical Engineering en
dc.contributor.department Elektroniikan ja nanotekniikan laitos fi
dc.contributor.department Department of Electronics and Nanoengineering en
dc.subject.keyword Schottky diode en
dc.subject.keyword thermal characterisation en
dc.subject.keyword dielectric material en
dc.identifier.urn URN:ISBN:978-952-60-7317-0
dc.type.dcmitype text en
dc.type.ontasot Doctoral dissertation (article-based) en
dc.type.ontasot Väitöskirja (artikkeli) fi
dc.contributor.supervisor Räisänen, Antti, Prof., Aalto University, Department of Radio Science and Engineering, Finland
dc.opn Maestrini, Alain, Dr., Observatoire de Paris - LERMA, Paris, France
dc.rev Mehdi, Imran , Dr., Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, USA
dc.rev Hesler, Jeffrey , Dr., Virginia Diodes Inc., Charlottesville, VA, USA 2017-03-21

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