Microphotonic silicon waveguide components

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dc.contributor Aalto-yliopisto fi
dc.contributor Aalto University en
dc.contributor.author Aalto, Timo
dc.date.accessioned 2012-02-13T12:56:38Z
dc.date.available 2012-02-13T12:56:38Z
dc.date.issued 2004-12-10
dc.identifier.isbn 951-38-6423-5
dc.identifier.issn 1455-0849
dc.identifier.uri https://aaltodoc.aalto.fi/handle/123456789/2452
dc.description.abstract This thesis describes the design, simulation, fabrication and characterisation of microphotonic silicon waveguide components on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates. The focus is on approximately 10 μm thick and single-moded (SM) silicon rib waveguides. In particular, simulation results are given for straight and bent Si waveguides, directional couplers (DCs), thermo-optically (TO) modulated Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZI), and waveguide gratings. A new analytical SM condition for Si rib waveguides is proposed and the development of a new grating simulation algorithm is reported. The theoretical part of the work also involves inventions relating to multi-step patterning of Si waveguides, modulation of interferometric devices, and measurement of polarisation axes from waveguides and polarisation maintaining (PM) fibers. Clean room processing of waveguide chips is briefly described. Main process steps are photolithography, electron-beam lithography, thermal oxidation, oxide deposition, oxide dry etching and Si dry etching. Post-processing of the chip is also reported, including dicing, polishing, anti-reflection (AR) coating, fiber pigtailing and wire bonding. The development of fabrication processes for multi-step patterning, waveguide gratings and photonic crystal waveguides is reported, although the optical characterisation of devices based on these three processes is not included in the thesis. Experimental results are given for Si rib waveguides with different thicknesses (H) and widths (W). The minimum fiber coupling loss with H = 9 μm was 1.3 dB/facet without an AR coating. The AR coating reduced the coupling loss by 0.7-0.8 dB/facet. Minimum propagation loss for a 114 cm long waveguide spiral with H = 9 μm and W = 7 μm was 0.13 dB/cm. With H = 9 μm, the birefringence varied from 0.00063 to <0.0001 depending on the cladding material, and the maximum polarisation extinction ratio for straight waveguides and directional couplers was >15 dB. Furthermore, fast modulation with 15 dB extinction ratio (ER) is reported for TO MZI switches by using both traditional (10 kHz) and novel (167 kHz) modulation methods. Rise and fall times for single switching operations were pushed below 750 ns with 9 dB ER. The setups and methods used in measurements are described in detail, including a novel method for measuring the polarisation axes of waveguides and PM fibers. en
dc.format.extent 78, [73]
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland en
dc.publisher VTT fi
dc.relation.ispartofseries VTT publications en
dc.relation.ispartofseries 553 en
dc.relation.haspart T. Aalto, M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, P. Heimala, and M. Leppihalme, Development of silicon-on-insulator waveguide technology, Photonics West 2004, San Jose, USA, 26-29 January 2004. Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 5355, pp. 81-95, 2004. [article1.pdf] © 2004 SPIE. By permission.
dc.relation.haspart M. Harjanne, T. Aalto, Design of tight bends in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides, Physica Scripta, Vol. T114, pp. 209-212, 2004.
dc.relation.haspart T. Aalto, P. Heimala, and P. Katila, Integrated optical switch based on SOI-technology, Physica Scripta, Vol. T79, pp. 123-126, 1999.
dc.relation.haspart T. Aalto, M. Kapulainen, S. Yliniemi, P. Heimala, and M. Leppihalme, Fast thermo-optical switch based on SOI waveguides, Photonics West 2003, San Jose, USA, 27-29 January, 2003. Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 4987, pp. 149-159, 2003. [article4.pdf] © 2003 SPIE. By permission.
dc.relation.haspart M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, T. Aalto, and P. Heimala, Sub-μs switching time in silicon-on-insulator Mach–Zehnder thermooptic switch, Photonics Technology Letters, Vol. 16, No. 9, pp. 2039-2041, 2004. [article5.pdf] © 2004 IEEE. By permission.
dc.relation.haspart J. Tervo, M. Kuittinen, P. Vahimaa, J. Turunen, T. Aalto, P. Heimala, and M. Leppihalme, Efficient Bragg waveguide-grating analysis by quasi-rigorous approach based on Redheffer's star product, Optics Communications, Vol. 198, pp. 265-272, 2001. [article6.pdf] © 2001 Elsevier Science. By permission.
dc.relation.haspart P. Heimala, T. Aalto, S. Yliniemi, J. Simonen, M. Kuittinen, J. Turunen, and M. Leppihalme, Fabrication of Bragg grating structures in silicon, Physica Scripta, Vol. T101, pp. 92-95, 2002.
dc.relation.haspart T. Aalto, M. Harjanne, and M. Kapulainen, Method for the rotational alignment of polarization-maintaining optical fibers and waveguides, Optical Engineering, Vol. 42, Issue 10, pp. 2861-2867, 2003. [article8.pdf] © 2003 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. By permission.
dc.subject.other Electrical engineering en
dc.title Microphotonic silicon waveguide components en
dc.type G5 Artikkeliväitöskirja fi
dc.description.version reviewed en
dc.contributor.department Department of Electrical and Communications Engineering en
dc.contributor.department Sähkö- ja tietoliikennetekniikan osasto fi
dc.subject.keyword silicon microphotonics en
dc.subject.keyword integrated optics en
dc.subject.keyword silicon-on-insulator waveguides en
dc.subject.keyword SOI waveguides en
dc.subject.keyword waveguide bends en
dc.subject.keyword thermo-optical switching en
dc.subject.keyword multi-step patterning en
dc.subject.keyword polarisation maintaining fibers en
dc.subject.keyword polarisation extinction ratio en
dc.identifier.urn urn:nbn:fi:tkk-004150
dc.type.dcmitype text en
dc.type.ontasot Väitöskirja (artikkeli) fi
dc.type.ontasot Doctoral dissertation (article-based) en


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