Sulphation of cuprous and cupric oxide dusts and heterogeneous copper matte particles in simulated flash smelting heat recovery boiler conditions

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dc.contributor Aalto-yliopisto fi
dc.contributor Aalto University en Ranki-Kilpinen, Tiina 2012-02-13T12:42:41Z 2012-02-13T12:42:41Z 2004-04-28
dc.identifier.isbn 951-22-7022-6
dc.identifier.issn 1795-0074
dc.description.abstract Copper smelting with the Outokumpu flash smelting process generates significant amounts of SO2-rich off-gas and flue dust. From the smelting unit, gases with a dust load are directed into a heat recovery boiler (also known as a waste heat boiler). In the radiation section temperature decreases, sulphates become thermodynamically stable, and the sulphation of oxidic dust particles commences. Releasing heat may lead to an increase in particle temperatures, softening of the sulphated particles, and the formation of dust accretions on the heat transfer surfaces. Decreased heat transfer efficiency and blockages of the gas flow paths may cause severe operational problems. To maintain stable boiler operation, sulphation behaviour has to be well understood, but only scant published data concerning dust sulphation reactions is available. The objective of this work was to gain basic knowledge of the sulphation behaviour of dust components to ascertain that boiler design and operation can be carried out so that sulphate formation takes place in a controlled manner. The reactions of synthetic Cu2O and CuO (mainly 37-53 µm) and a partially oxidised copper matte were studied experimentally with the aim of arriving at a better understanding of dust sulphation in industrial heat recovery boilers. The parameters in the laboratory-scale experiments were gas composition (20-60 vol-% SO2, 2.5-10 vol-% O2), temperature (560-660 °C), reaction time, and particle size. Standard chemical analysis and scanning electron microscopy with EDS were utilised when examining the samples. Sulphate formation was found to be sensitive to gas composition and temperature. Also particle size and surface morphology have significant effects on the sulphation rate. On the basis of the experimental results the temperature range for effective sulphation of pure cuprous oxide is narrow; the optimal sulphate formation temperature lies between 580-640 °C, depending on the gas composition. An increase in oxygen concentration expands the favourable temperature range and lowers the most optimal sulphate formation temperature; on the contrary an increase in sulphur dioxide concentration raises the favourable sulphation temperature. On the basis of the present experiments pure cupric oxide behaves like cuprous oxide, but the conversion degrees are slightly lower and there is not such a clear enhance in the sulphation rate at a certain temperature. Fine, heterogeneous partially oxidised matte reacts significantly faster compared to synthetic oxides. The reason for more effective sulphation is suggested to be the smaller particle size and more detailed morphology (larger specific surface area). In the heat recovery boiler dust particles must have a sufficient residence time in the gas phase at a correct temperature range to allow the dust particles to reach complete conversion in the radiation section before they enter the boiler convection section and come into contact with the convection tube banks. Enough oxygen has to be supplied to the appropriate zone to ensure effective sulphation at the right place. Also, mixing of the oxygen must be efficient. en
dc.format.extent 62
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher Helsinki University of Technology en
dc.publisher Teknillinen korkeakoulu fi
dc.relation.ispartofseries Helsinki University of Technology doctoral theses in materials and earth sciences en
dc.relation.ispartofseries 1 en
dc.subject.other Geoinformatics en
dc.title Sulphation of cuprous and cupric oxide dusts and heterogeneous copper matte particles in simulated flash smelting heat recovery boiler conditions en
dc.type G4 Monografiaväitöskirja fi
dc.description.version reviewed en
dc.contributor.department Department of Materials Science and Rock Engineering en
dc.contributor.department Materiaali- ja kalliotekniikan osasto fi
dc.subject.keyword sulphation en
dc.subject.keyword cuprous oxide en
dc.subject.keyword cupric oxide en
dc.subject.keyword flue dust en
dc.subject.keyword flash smelting en
dc.subject.keyword heat recovery boiler en
dc.identifier.urn urn:nbn:fi:tkk-003514
dc.type.dcmitype text en
dc.type.ontasot Väitöskirja (monografia) fi
dc.type.ontasot Doctoral dissertation (monograph) en
dc.contributor.lab Laboratory of Materials Processing and Powder Metallurgy en
dc.contributor.lab Materiaalien valmistustekniikan ja metallurgian laboratorio fi

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