Chain linked lactic acid polymers : polymerization and biodegradation studies

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dc.contributor Aalto-yliopisto fi
dc.contributor Aalto University en Tuominen, Jukka 2012-01-24T14:39:13Z 2012-01-24T14:39:13Z 2003-02-28
dc.identifier.isbn 951-22-6403-X
dc.identifier.issn 0785-7144
dc.description.abstract The two-step polymerization method, including polycondensation and chain linking reactions, was conducted to obtain high-molecular-weight lactic acid polymers. The biodegradability of these polymers was subsequently investigated. Three polymerization routes were studied. Hydroxyl-terminated prepolymers were linked with diisocyanates, 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI) or 1,4-butane diisocyanate (BDI), to produce poly(ester-urethanes) (PEU). Carboxyl-terminated prepolymers were linked with 2,2’-bis(2-oxazoline) (BOX) to produce poly(ester-amides) (PEA). In addition, lactic acid oligomers having both carboxyl and hydroxyl end-groups were linked, with sequential or simultaneous addition of HMDI and BOX, to produce both urethane and oxamide bonds in the lactic acid polymer (PEUA). The structures of novel chain linked lactic acid polymers were identified and the polymerization behavior of carboxyl- and hydroxyl-reactive chain extenders with prepolymers was carefully evaluated with the use of SEC, NMR, and FTIR. BOX was found to be simultaneously an effective chain coupling agent and acid value reducer for lactic acid based prepolymer, whilst also increasing the thermal stability of PLA polymers. Side-reactions were detected, which can be utilized to obtain branches and crosslinks to PEU and PEUA during chain linking polymerizations. Amide groups, formed in the reaction between HMDI and the COOH group, played an important role in the branching and crosslinking, rather than the oxamide or urethane groups. Also, the mode of addition of chain extenders had a considerable effect on the branching. The biodegradability of lactic acid polymers prepared by chain linking was demonstrated using hydrolysis and a controlled compost test. The quality of the compost after biodegradation was evaluated with biotests. All the polymers biodegraded to over 90 % of the positive control in six months, which is the limit set by the CEN standard. Toxicity was detected with the Flash test and plant growth tests in PEU samples, where chain linking of lactic acid oligomers had been carried out with 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate. All other polymers showed no toxicological effect. The results clearly showed that 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate should not be used as a building block in biodegradable polymers on account of the environmental risk. en
dc.format.extent 54, [57]
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher Helsinki University of Technology en
dc.publisher Teknillinen korkeakoulu fi
dc.relation.ispartofseries Polymer technology publication series / Helsinki University of Technology en
dc.relation.ispartofseries 25 en
dc.relation.haspart Hiltunen K., Tuominen J. and Seppälä J. V., 1998. Hydrolysis of lactic acid based poly(ester-urethane)s. Polymer International 47, pages 186-192.
dc.relation.haspart Tuominen J. and Seppälä J. V., 2000. Synthesis and characterization of lactic acid based poly(ester-amide). Macromolecules 33, pages 3530-3535.
dc.relation.haspart Helminen A., Kylmä J., Tuominen J. and Seppälä J. V., 2000. Effect of structure modification on rheological properties of biodegradable poly(ester-urethane). Polymer Engineering and Science 40, pages 1655-1662.
dc.relation.haspart Kylmä J., Tuominen J., Helminen A. and Seppälä J., 2001. Chain extending of lactic acid oligomers. Effect of 2,2’-bis(2-oxazoline) on 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate linking reaction. Polymer 42, pages 3333-3343.
dc.relation.haspart Tuominen J., Kylmä J. and Seppälä J., 2002. Chain extending of lactic acid oligomers.  2. Increase of molecular weight with 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate and 2,2’-bis(2-oxazoline). Polymer 43, pages 3-10.
dc.relation.haspart Tuominen J., Kylmä J., Kapanen A., Venelampi O., Itävaara M. and Seppälä J., 2002. Biodegradation of lactic acid based polymers under controlled composting conditions and evaluation of the ecotoxicological impact. Biomacromolecules 3, pages 445-455.
dc.subject.other Chemistry en
dc.title Chain linked lactic acid polymers : polymerization and biodegradation studies en
dc.type G5 Artikkeliväitöskirja fi
dc.description.version reviewed en
dc.contributor.department Department of Chemical Technology en
dc.contributor.department Kemian tekniikan osasto fi
dc.subject.keyword biodegradable polymers en
dc.subject.keyword poly(ester-amide) en
dc.subject.keyword poly(ester-urethane) en
dc.subject.keyword lactic acid en
dc.subject.keyword polycondensation en
dc.subject.keyword chain extending en
dc.subject.keyword composting en
dc.subject.keyword ecotoxicity en
dc.identifier.urn urn:nbn:fi:tkk-000310
dc.type.dcmitype text en
dc.type.ontasot Väitöskirja (artikkeli) fi
dc.type.ontasot Doctoral dissertation (article-based) en
dc.contributor.lab Laboratory of Polymer Technology en
dc.contributor.lab Polymeeriteknologian laboratorio fi

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