Study of Norway spruce cell wall structure with microscopy tools

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dc.contributor Aalto-yliopisto fi
dc.contributor Aalto University en
dc.contributor.advisor Vuorinen, Tapani, Prof., Aalto University, Department of Forest Products Technology, Finland Reza, Md. Mehedi 2016-03-10T10:01:02Z 2016-03-10T10:01:02Z 2016
dc.identifier.isbn 978-952-60-6684-4 (electronic)
dc.identifier.isbn 978-952-60-6683-7 (printed)
dc.identifier.issn 1799-4942 (electronic)
dc.identifier.issn 1799-4934 (printed)
dc.identifier.issn 1799-4934 (ISSN-L)
dc.description.abstract The distribution and orientation of wood cell wall polymers play an important role in its physical, chemical and mechanical properties, and thus in the transformation into final products. Specifically, the orientation of cellulose elementary fibrils (EF) controls the performance of wood in almost every end use. Moreover, lignin is covalently linked to many of the cell wall polysaccharides, which imposes a serious technical challenge during the degradation of cellulose into value added products. Therefore, the deep understanding of the organization of the cell wall materials is imperative. In this study, normal Norway spruce wood was studied with a high-resolution cryo-transmission electron microscope (cryo-TEM). Both, two- (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) imaging techniques within TEM were applied on ultrathin wood sections to understand the wood structure. The defibration mechanisms in high-temperature thermomechanical pulping (HT-TMP) was also studied with a conventional TEM. Furthermore, the accessibility of cell wall lignin was studied with TEM and Raman microspectroscopy by analysing fresh and solvent extracted ultrathin sections of Norway spruce branch wood. The results showed that the organization of EFs varies from layer to layer and also within a single layer. In addition to the well-adopted concept of longitudinal EF angle in tangential plane, this study showed the presence of an out-of-plane EF angle relative to the cell wall plane. The S1 layer had a transverse EF orientation with a predominant radial lamellar structure of EF bundles. Both crossed and parallel EF orientations were detected in the S1-2 transition layer, which was supported by the defibration mechanisms in HT-TMP. EFs in the outer-S2 layer had a relatively high longitudinal EF angle and a large out-of-plane angle with respect to the tangential plane, which continued to decline inward and became almost axial in the inner-S2 layer. A transverse, out-of-plane EF orientation in the S3 transverse sections was observed. The models of the wood cell wall summarize most of the findings regarding the wood ultrastructure. Study of the lignin extracted ultrathin sections showed the change of lignin concentration in all cell wall layers during the extraction process. However, lignin obtained after extraction consists mainly of secondary wall lignin as this area contains most of the total cell wall lignin in conifer tracheids. The new observations on the wood cell wall structure may lead to a better understanding of the reactivity of cellulosic fibers in biochemical, chemical and mechanical treatments. en
dc.format.extent 49 + app. 93
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf en
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher Aalto University en
dc.publisher Aalto-yliopisto fi
dc.relation.ispartofseries Aalto University publication series DOCTORAL DISSERTATIONS en
dc.relation.ispartofseries 39/2016
dc.relation.haspart [Publication 1]: Reza, Mehedi; Kontturi, Eero; Jääskeläinen, Anna-Stiina; Vuorinen, Tapani; Ruokolainen, Janne. 2015. Transmission electron microscopy for wood and fiber analysis - A Review. BioResources, volume 10, issue 3, pages 6230-6261. ISSN 1930-2126
dc.relation.haspart [Publication 2]: Reza, Mehedi; Ruokolainen, Janne; Vuorinen, Tapani. 2014. Out‑of-plane orientation of cellulose elementary fibrils on spruce tracheid wall based on imaging with high‑resolution transmission electron microscopy. Planta, Volume 240, Issue 3, pages 565-573. ISSN 0032-0935. DOI: 10.1007/s00425-014-2107-1
dc.relation.haspart [Publication 3]: Reza, Mehedi; Bertinetto, Carlo; Engelhardt, Peter; Ruokolainen, Janne; Vuorinen, Tapani. 2015. The ultrastructure of spruce S1 and S1-2 layers based on high-resolution cryo-TEM tomography and computational modelling. (Submitted).
dc.relation.haspart [Publication 4]: Solala, Iina; Antikainen, Toni; Reza, Mehedi; Johansson, Leena-Sisko; Hughes, Mark; Vuorinen, Tapani. 2014. Spruce fiber properties after high-temperature thermomechanical pulping (HT-TMP). Holzforschung. Volume 68, Issue 2, Pages 195-201. ISSN 0018-3830. DOI: 10.1515/hf-2013-0083
dc.relation.haspart [Publication 5]: Reza, Mehedi; Rojas, Leonardo G.; Kontturi, Eero; Vuorinen, Tapani; Ruokolainen, Janne. 2014. Accessibility of cell wall lignin in solvent extraction of ultrathin spruce wood sections. ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, Volume 2, Issue 4, pages 804–808. DOI 10.1021/sc400470m
dc.subject.other Paper technology en
dc.subject.other Physics en
dc.title Study of Norway spruce cell wall structure with microscopy tools en
dc.type G5 Artikkeliväitöskirja fi Perustieteiden korkeakoulu fi School of Science en
dc.contributor.department Teknillisen fysiikan laitos fi
dc.contributor.department Department of Applied Physics en
dc.subject.keyword cellulose microfibril en
dc.subject.keyword lignin distribution en
dc.subject.keyword lignin extraction en
dc.subject.keyword Norway spruce en
dc.subject.keyword thermo-mechanical pulp en
dc.subject.keyword transmission electron microscopy en
dc.subject.keyword transmission electron tomography en
dc.subject.keyword Raman microscopy en
dc.subject.keyword ultrathin sectioning en
dc.subject.keyword wood cell wall en
dc.identifier.urn URN:ISBN:978-952-60-6684-4
dc.type.dcmitype text en
dc.type.ontasot Doctoral dissertation (article-based) en
dc.type.ontasot Väitöskirja (artikkeli) fi
dc.contributor.supervisor Ruokolainen, Janne, Prof., Aalto University, Department of Applied Physics, Finland
dc.opn Salmén, Lennart, Prof., Innventia AB, Stockholm, Sweden
dc.rev Sugiyama, Junji, Prof., Kyoto University, Japan
dc.rev Burgert, Ingo, Prof., ETH - Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich, Switzerland 2016-04-15

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