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Copper-related light-induced degradation in crystalline silicon

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dc.contributor Aalto-yliopisto fi
dc.contributor Aalto University en
dc.contributor.author Lindroos, Jeanette
dc.date.accessioned 2015-04-09T09:01:27Z
dc.date.available 2015-04-09T09:01:27Z
dc.date.issued 2015
dc.identifier.isbn 978-952-60-6130-6 (electronic)
dc.identifier.isbn 978-952-60-6129-0 (printed)
dc.identifier.issn 1799-4942 (electronic)
dc.identifier.issn 1799-4934 (printed)
dc.identifier.issn 1799-4934 (ISSN-L)
dc.identifier.uri https://aaltodoc.aalto.fi/handle/123456789/15601
dc.description.abstract Unintentional copper and nickel impurities are common in silicon-based devices due to the abundance of contamination sources in industrial silicon crystallization and wafer processing lines. High solubility and diffusivity result readily in significant impurity concentrations, which cause charge-carrier recombination and reduce the device response. This work confirms that nickel diffuses as fast as copper in silicon, emphasizing the importance of contamination control in silicon-based devices. Copper contamination is known to form recombination-active defects in silicon during illumination, which is observed as copper-related light-induced degradation (Cu-LID). In order to identify the  extent of degradation in silicon-based devices, this work focuses on determining the properties of Cu-LID in gallium-doped Czochralski (Cz) silicon, boron-doped Cz-Si, and boron-doped multicrystalline silicon. Cu-LID is determined to be predominantly a bulk recombination effect, and the formed defects are found to be stable at 200°C. Slower Cu-LID is observed in Ga-Si compared to B-Si, suggesting that Cu-LID formation is limited by the effective copper diffusivity. Cu-LID is shown to completely disappear after negative sample surface charging and illumination. The negative surface charge is achieved by corona charging or aluminum oxide deposition. Cu-LID removal is observed to have no impact on classical boron-oxygen-related light-induced degradation (BO-LID), which has previously been shown to recover at 200°C. Unlike BO-LID, the activation energy of Cu-LID is found to depend on the silicon doping concentration. Hence, Cu-LID and BO-LID are concluded to be two different degradation effects, which can occur simultaneously in silicon-based devices. en
dc.description.abstract Kiselbaserade elektroniska komponenter är ofta oavsiktligt förorenade av koppar och nickel från otaliga kontaminationskällor i industriella komponentframställningsprocesser. Metallernas höga diffusivitet samt löslighet leder fort till markanta orenhetskoncentrationer, vilka förorsakar rekombination av laddningsbärare och nedsatt komponentrespons. Denna avhandling bekräftar att nickel diffuserar lika fort som koppar i kristallint kisel, vilket betonar vikten av metallorenhetskontroll i kiselbaserade komponenter. Kopparorenheter förorsakar fotodegradadering (Cu-LID) i kisel via formationen av rekombinationsaktiva koppardefekter under illuminering. För att fastställa omfattningen av fotodegradadering i kiselbaserade komponenter, fokuserar denna avhandling på att identifiera egenskaper för Cu-LID i gallium-dopat Czochralski (Cz) kisel, boron-dopat Cz-Si och boron-dopat mångkristallint kisel. Cu-LID finnes orsaka främst bulkrekombination och de formade koppardefekterna är stabila i 200°C. Cu-LID sker långsammare i Ga-Si jämfört med B-Si, vilket antyder att fotodegraderingsprocessen begränsas av den effektiva koppardiffusiviteten. I avhandlingen förhindras kopparrelaterad fotodegradadering fullständigt genom att kombinera negativ kiselytladdning med illuminering. Den negativa ytladdningen skapas via deposition av koronaladdning eller aluminiumoxidtunnfilm. Avlägsning av Cu-LID inverkar inte på klassisk bor-syre-relaterad fotodegraderingen (BO-LID), som förekommer i kisel utan kopparföroreningar och försvinner i 200°C. I motsats till BO-LID beror aktiveringsenergin för Cu-LID på dopingkoncentrationen i kiselmaterialet. Följaktligen fastställs Cu-LID och BO-LID vara två skilda former av fotodegradering, vilka kan förkomma samtidigt i kiselbaserade elektroniska komponenter. fi
dc.format.extent 80 + app. 44
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf en
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher Aalto University en
dc.publisher Aalto-yliopisto fi
dc.relation.ispartofseries Aalto University publication series DOCTORAL DISSERTATIONS en
dc.relation.ispartofseries 37/2015
dc.relation.haspart [Publication 1]: J. Lindroos, M. Yli-Koski, A. Haarahiltunen, M. C. Schubert, and H. Savin, Light-induced degradation in copper-contaminated gallium-doped silicon, Physica Status Solidi - Rapid Research Letters 7, No. 4, p. 262-264 (2013). http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pssr.201307011.
dc.relation.haspart [Publication 2]: J. Lindroos, M. Yli-Koski, A. Haarahiltunen, and H. Savin, Room-temperature method for minimizing light-induced degradation in crystalline silicon, Applied Physics Letters 101, 232108 (2012). http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4769809.
dc.relation.haspart [Publication 3]: Y. Boulfrad, J. Lindroos, Mt. Wagner, F. Wolny, M. Yli-Koski, and H. Savin, Experimental evidence on removing copper and light-induced degradation from silicon by negative charge, Applied Physics Letters 105, 182108 (2014). http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4901533.
dc.relation.haspart [Publication 4]: J. Lindroos and H. Savin, Formation kinetics of copper-related light-induced degradation in crystalline silicon, Journal of Applied Physics 116, 234901 (2014). http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4904197.
dc.relation.haspart [Publication 5]: J. Lindroos, Y. Boulfrad, M. Yli-Koski, and H. Savin, Preventing light-induced degradation in multicrystalline silicon, Journal of Applied Physics 115, 154902 (2014). http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4871404.
dc.relation.haspart [Publication 6]: J. Lindroos, D. P. Fenning, D. J. Backlund, E. Verlage, A. Gorgulla, S. K. Estreicher, H. Savin, and T. Buonassisi, Nickel: A very fast diffuser in silicon, Journal of Applied Physics 113, 204906 (2013). http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4807799.
dc.subject.other Electrical engineering en
dc.subject.other Physics en
dc.title Copper-related light-induced degradation in crystalline silicon en
dc.title Kopparrelaterad fotodegradering i kristallint kisel sv
dc.type G5 Artikkeliväitöskirja fi
dc.contributor.school Sähkötekniikan korkeakoulu fi
dc.contributor.school School of Electrical Engineering en
dc.contributor.department Mikro- ja nanotekniikan laitos fi
dc.contributor.department Department of Micro and Nanosciences en
dc.subject.keyword copper en
dc.subject.keyword degradation en
dc.subject.keyword lifetime en
dc.subject.keyword nickel en
dc.subject.keyword silicon en
dc.subject.keyword degradering sv
dc.subject.keyword kisel sv
dc.subject.keyword koppar sv
dc.subject.keyword livstid sv
dc.subject.keyword nickel sv
dc.identifier.urn URN:ISBN:978-952-60-6130-6
dc.type.dcmitype text en
dc.type.ontasot Doctoral dissertation (article-based) en
dc.type.ontasot Väitöskirja (artikkeli) fi
dc.contributor.supervisor Savin, Hele, Assistant Prof., Aalto University, Department of Micro and Nanosciences, Finland
dc.opn Weber, Eicke, Prof., University of Freiburg, Germany
dc.date.dateaccepted 2015-01-29
dc.contributor.lab Electron Physics Group en
dc.contributor.lab Elektronifysiikan ryhmä fi
dc.rev Seibt, Michael, Prof., University of Göttingen, Germany
dc.rev Macdonald, Daniel, Associate Prof., Australian National University, Australia
dc.date.defence 2015-04-24

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