Substorm Current Wedge Revisited

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dc.contributor Aalto-yliopisto fi
dc.contributor Aalto University en Kepko, Larry. McPherron, R. L. Amm, O. Apatenkov, S. Baumjohann, W. Birn, J. Lester, M. Nakamura, R. Pulkkinen, Tuija I. Sergeev, V. 2015-03-25T10:00:20Z 2015-03-25T10:00:20Z 2014
dc.identifier.citation Kepko, Larry. & McPherron, R. L. & Amm, O. & Apatenkov, S. & Baumjohann, W. & Birn, J. & Lester, M. & Nakamura, R. & Pulkkinen, T. I. & Sergeev, V. 2014. Substorm Current Wedge Revisited. Space Science Reviews, nro 4, December 2014. P. 46 p. 1572-9672 (electronic). DOI: 10.1007/s11214-014-0124-9 en
dc.identifier.issn 1572-9672 (electronic)
dc.identifier.issn 0038-6308 (printed)
dc.description.abstract Almost 40 years ago the concept of the substorm current wedge was developed to explain the magnetic signatures observed on the ground and in geosynchronous orbit during substorm expansion. In the ensuing decades new observations, including radar and low-altitude spacecraft, MHD simulations, and theoretical considerations have tremendously advanced our understanding of this system. The AMPTE/IRM, THEMIS and Cluster missions have added considerable observational knowledge, especially on the important role of fast flows in producing the stresses that generate the substorm current wedge. Recent detailed, multi-spacecraft, multi-instrument observations both in the magnetosphere and in the ionosphere have brought a wealth of new information about the details of the temporal evolution and structure of the current system. While the large-scale picture remains valid, the new details call for revision and an update of the original view. In this paper we briefly review the historical development of the substorm current wedge, review recent in situ and ground-based observations and theoretical work, and discuss the current active research areas. We conclude with a revised, time-dependent picture of the substorm current wedge that follows its evolution from the initial substorm flows through substorm expansion and recovery. en
dc.format.extent 46 p.
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf en
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher Springer Netherlands en
dc.relation.ispartofseries Space Science Reviews. 4 December 2014 en
dc.rights © The Authors 2014. This article is published with open access at en
dc.subject.other Meteorology en
dc.subject.other Space technology en
dc.subject.other Physics en
dc.title Substorm Current Wedge Revisited en
dc.type B1 Kirjoitus tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä fi
dc.type Final published version fi
dc.description.version Peer reviewed en
dc.rights.holder L. Kepko, R. L. McPherron, O. Amm, S. Apatenkov, W. Baumjohann, J. Birn, M. Lester, R. Nakamura, Tuija I. Pulkkinen, V. Sergeev Sähkötekniikan korkeakoulu fi School of Electrical Engineering en
dc.subject.keyword substorm en
dc.subject.keyword substorm current wedge en
dc.subject.keyword field-aligned currents en
dc.subject.keyword Birkeland currents en
dc.identifier.urn URN:NBN:fi:aalto-201503232054
dc.type.dcmitype text en
dc.identifier.doi 10.1007/s11214-014-0124-9

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