Gamification - Motivations & Effects

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dc.contributor Aalto-yliopisto fi
dc.contributor Aalto University en
dc.contributor.advisor Tuunainen, Virpi, Prof., Aalto University, Department of Information and Service Economy, Finland
dc.contributor.author Hamari, Juho
dc.date.accessioned 2015-01-29T10:00:17Z
dc.date.available 2015-01-29T10:00:17Z
dc.date.issued 2015
dc.identifier.isbn 978-952-60-6056-9 (electronic)
dc.identifier.isbn 978-952-60-6055-2 (printed)
dc.identifier.issn 1799-4942 (electronic)
dc.identifier.issn 1799-4934 (printed)
dc.identifier.issn 1799-4934 (ISSN-L)
dc.identifier.uri https://aaltodoc.aalto.fi/handle/123456789/15037
dc.description.abstract The field of information systems has a sustained tradition of dividing systems into either utilitarian or hedonic systems, with the core idea that some systems are purely utilitarian in nature and some are self-purposeful. However, in recent years, information system design has been increasingly used for motivational purposes, that is, a hedonic or motivational system design is employed as a method for increasing the utility of systems and activities. Simply put, the core idea is that the more enjoyable or motivating a system or activity becomes, it can also become more utilitarian since the user is expected to be more willing to increase the amount and quality of related activities. The most popular conceptual development in this area has sparked wide-ranging interest towards this phenomenon, and has adopted the name 'GAMIFICATION'. This multi-disciplinary term arises from the general conception that game design, if anything, is an art of hedonic system design, since games are one of the pinnacle forms of self-purposeful systems. In other words, self-purposeful systems such as games are thought to be used for the sole purpose of non-utilitarian enjoyment that is derived from the actual use of the system, rather than from any concrete outcomes of that use. Therefore, the term gamification can be read as 'a process of making systems/activities more enjoyable and motivating, in order to support the utilitarian or otherwise beneficial outcomes of the system, service or activity. Although the idea of gamification has been enormously popular over the last couple years, there has remained a dearth of conceptually refined understanding of the phenomenon, as well as a gap in the empirical evidence offered to demonstrate its effectiveness. With these paucities in mind, this dissertation aims to address both the conceptual and empirical gap. From the conceptual perspective, this dissertation presents two studies in which gamification is linked to IS/marketing theory. The first study links marketing literature with observations drawn from actual games on how game developers use game mechanics in their services as means of marketing (Study 1 - Game design as marketing: How game mechanics create demand for virtual goods). The second conceptual study forms a definition of gamification, arrived at by triangulating theories taken from game studies, motivational psychology, service marketing and IS/HCI (Defining Gamification - A Service Marketing Perspective). To investigate the empirical gap, this dissertation presents two studies. The first empirical study investigates what (social) benefits and motivations drive the continued use of gamification services (Social motivations to use gamification: an empirical study of gamifying exercise). The second empirical study presents a 1.5 year long field experiment on the effects of gamification on user activity and retention (Transforming Homo Economicus into Homo Ludens: A Field Experiment on Gamification in a Utilitarian Peer-To-Peer Trading Service). en
dc.format.extent 123
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf en
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher Aalto University en
dc.publisher Aalto-yliopisto fi
dc.relation.ispartofseries Aalto University publication series DOCTORAL DISSERTATIONS en
dc.relation.ispartofseries 11/2015
dc.relation.haspart Hamari, J., Lehdonvirta, V. (2010). Game design as marketing: How game mechanics create demand for virtual goods. International Journal of Business Science and Applied Management, 5 (1), 14-29. ISSN 1753-0296.
dc.relation.haspart Huotari, K., Hamari, J. (2012). Defining Gamification - A Service Marketing Perspective. In Proceedings of the 16th International Academic Mindtrek Conference, Tampere, Finland, October 3-5, 2012. Association for Computing Machinary (ACM). 17-22. ISBN 978-1-4503-1637-8. DOI: 10.1145/2393132.2393137
dc.relation.haspart Hamari, J., Koivisto, J. (2013). Social motivations to use gamification: an empirical study of gamifying exercise. In Proceedings of the 21st European Conference on Information Systems, Utrecht, Netherlands, June 5–8, 2013. Association for Information Systems (AIS). ISBN 978-90-393-6112-2
dc.relation.haspart Hamari, J. (2013). Transforming Homo Economicus into Homo Ludens: A Field Experiment on Gamification in a Utilitarian Peer-To-Peer Trading Service. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 12 (4), 236-245. ISSN 1567-4223. DOI: 10.1016/j.elerap.2013.01.004
dc.subject.other New media en
dc.title Gamification - Motivations & Effects en
dc.type G5 Artikkeliväitöskirja fi
dc.contributor.school Kauppakorkeakoulu fi
dc.contributor.school School of Business en
dc.contributor.department Tieto- ja palvelutalouden laitos fi
dc.contributor.department Department of Information and Service Economy en
dc.subject.keyword Badges en
dc.subject.keyword Gamification en
dc.subject.keyword Hedonic information systems en
dc.subject.keyword Playfulness en
dc.identifier.urn URN:ISBN:978-952-60-6056-9
dc.type.dcmitype text en
dc.type.ontasot Doctoral dissertation (article-based) en
dc.type.ontasot Väitöskirja (artikkeli) fi
dc.contributor.supervisor Rossi, Matti, Prof., Aalto University, Department of Information and Service Economy, Finland
dc.opn Nandhakumar, Joe, Prof., University of Warwick, United Kingdom
dc.opn Salo, Jari, Prof., University of Oulu, Finland
dc.subject.helecon arts management
dc.subject.helecon games
dc.subject.helecon entertainment
dc.subject.helecon information systems
dc.subject.helecon systems
dc.subject.helecon processes
dc.subject.helecon kulttuurijohtaminen
dc.subject.helecon pelit
dc.subject.helecon viihde
dc.subject.helecon tietojärjestelmät
dc.subject.helecon systeemit
dc.subject.helecon prosessit
dc.contributor.lab Information Systems Science en
dc.date.defence 2015-02-06


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