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Selective Sulfation Roasting for Cobalt and Lithium Extraction from Industrial LCO-Rich Spent Black Mass

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dc.contributor Aalto-yliopisto fi
dc.contributor Aalto University en
dc.contributor.author Biswas, Jayasree
dc.contributor.author Ulmala, Sofia
dc.contributor.author Wan, Xingbang
dc.contributor.author Partinen, Jere
dc.contributor.author Lundström, Mari
dc.contributor.author Jokilaakso, Ari
dc.date.accessioned 2023-03-15T07:10:26Z
dc.date.available 2023-03-15T07:10:26Z
dc.date.issued 2023-02-10
dc.identifier.citation Biswas , J , Ulmala , S , Wan , X , Partinen , J , Lundström , M & Jokilaakso , A 2023 , ' Selective Sulfation Roasting for Cobalt and Lithium Extraction from Industrial LCO-Rich Spent Black Mass ' , Metals , vol. 13 , no. 2 , 358 . https://doi.org/10.3390/met13020358 en
dc.identifier.issn 2075-4701
dc.identifier.other PURE UUID: ebac7b1c-3e4a-4ed3-bb4a-2627ee46c747
dc.identifier.other PURE ITEMURL: https://research.aalto.fi/en/publications/ebac7b1c-3e4a-4ed3-bb4a-2627ee46c747
dc.identifier.other PURE LINK: http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85148875265&partnerID=8YFLogxK
dc.identifier.other PURE FILEURL: https://research.aalto.fi/files/102599129/CHEM_Biswas_et_al_Selective_Sulfation_Roasting_2023_Metals.pdf
dc.identifier.uri https://aaltodoc.aalto.fi/handle/123456789/120105
dc.description Funding Information: The authors are grateful to Akkuser Oy (Finland) for providing the battery scrap. The authors would like to thank Lassi Klemettinen and Anna Klemettinen for their training on working with the furnace and SEM. The authors are also grateful to the Academy of Finland for providing financial support for this project (GOVERMAT, grant 346728). This study utilized the Academy of Finland’s RawMatTERS Finland Infrastructure (RAMI), based jointly at Aalto University, GTK Espoo, and VTT Espoo. Publisher Copyright: © 2023 by the authors.
dc.description.abstract The extraction of cobalt from secondary resources has become crucial, as cobalt has been identified as a strategically important and critical raw material due to the high risks of supply chain disruptions. In this work, selective sulfation roasting was investigated as a potential recycling strategy to extract cobalt and lithium from an industrial lithium cobalt oxide (LCO)-rich black mass. Additionally, the effect of graphite on metal extraction was studied. In the first set of experiments, the sieved black mass fraction containing both cathode and anode materials was directly roasted in a predetermined composition of gas mixtures of SO2, O2, and Ar for 1 h at 850 °C. The gas composition was determined from Kellogg’s diagram to allow for the selective sulfation of Co and Li. In another set of experiments, the carbon present in the black mass was first removed by roasting the material in Ar for 2 h and then in an Ar and O2 gas mixture for five hours at 600 °C. Afterward, selective sulfation roasting was performed in mixtures of SO2, O2, and Ar gas similar to the previous set of experiments. For comparison, similar experiments were performed at 800 °C. The sulfation roasted black mass was leached in water to study the efficiency of Co extraction into the solution. Interestingly, the presence of carbon was found to be beneficial for Co extraction. The extraction efficiency for the first case (with carbon present in the raw material) was observed to be more than three times higher than in the second case (with carbon removed) for sulfation at 850 °C. The extraction efficiency and purity of the extracted Co were found to be better for higher temperature sulfation roasting conditions due to faster reaction kinetics. It was also found that almost all of the Li could be recovered while extracting Co. The maximum efficiency of the extraction was 99.51% Li and 61.21% Co for roasting under a gas flow of 10% SO2-10% O2-Ar at 850 °C for 60 min. These results suggest that Co and Li can be selectively extracted from the black mass by sulfation roasting pre-treatment followed by leaching in water. In holistic processing, the leach residue can then be further subjected to battery metal processing by state-of-the-art methods. en
dc.format.extent 19
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher MDPI AG
dc.relation.ispartofseries Metals en
dc.relation.ispartofseries Volume 13, issue 2 en
dc.rights openAccess en
dc.title Selective Sulfation Roasting for Cobalt and Lithium Extraction from Industrial LCO-Rich Spent Black Mass en
dc.type A1 Alkuperäisartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä fi
dc.description.version Peer reviewed en
dc.contributor.department Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering
dc.contributor.department Metallurgy (MTG)
dc.contributor.department Central South University
dc.contributor.department Hydrometallurgy and Corrosion
dc.contributor.department Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering en
dc.subject.keyword cobalt recovery
dc.subject.keyword lithium-ion battery
dc.subject.keyword recycling
dc.subject.keyword sulfation roasting
dc.subject.keyword water leaching
dc.identifier.urn URN:NBN:fi:aalto-202303152431
dc.identifier.doi 10.3390/met13020358
dc.type.version publishedVersion

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