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Workplace Exposure Measurements of Emission from Industrial 3D Printing

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dc.contributor Aalto-yliopisto fi
dc.contributor Aalto University en
dc.contributor.author Kangas, Anneli
dc.contributor.author Kukko, Kirsi
dc.contributor.author Kanerva, Tomi
dc.contributor.author Säämänen, Arto
dc.contributor.author Akmal, Jan Sher
dc.contributor.author Partanen, Jouni
dc.contributor.author Viitanen, Anna-Kaisa
dc.date.accessioned 2023-03-15T07:10:23Z
dc.date.available 2023-03-15T07:10:23Z
dc.date.issued 2023-03-03
dc.identifier.citation Kangas , A , Kukko , K , Kanerva , T , Säämänen , A , Akmal , J S , Partanen , J & Viitanen , A-K 2023 , ' Workplace Exposure Measurements of Emission from Industrial 3D Printing ' , Annals of Work Exposures and Health , pp. 1-13 . https://doi.org/10.1093/annweh/wxad006 en
dc.identifier.issn 2398-7308
dc.identifier.other PURE UUID: e936f9e8-5dc0-4b9c-95fd-03e57aaa6c40
dc.identifier.other PURE ITEMURL: https://research.aalto.fi/en/publications/e936f9e8-5dc0-4b9c-95fd-03e57aaa6c40
dc.identifier.other PURE FILEURL: https://research.aalto.fi/files/102321847/wxad006.pdf
dc.identifier.uri https://aaltodoc.aalto.fi/handle/123456789/120104
dc.description.abstract Particle and gaseous contaminants from industrial scale additive manufacturing (AM) machines were studied in three different work environments. Workplaces utilized powder bed fusion, material extrusion, and binder jetting techniques with metal and polymer powders, polymer filaments, and gypsum powder, respectively. The AM processes were studied from operator’s point of view to identify exposure events and possible safety risks. Total number of particle concentrations were measured in the range of 10 nm to 300 nm from operator’s breathing zone using portable devices and in the range of 2.5 nm to 10 µm from close vicinity of the AM machines using stationary measurement devices. Gas-phase compounds were measured with photoionization, electrochemical sensors, and an active air sampling method which were eventually followed by laboratory analyses. The duration of the measurements varied from 3 to 5 days during which the manufacturing processes were practically continuous. We identified several work phases in whichan operator can potentially be exposed by inhalation (pulmonary exposure) to airborne emissions. A skin exposure was also identified as a potential risk factor based on the observations made on work tasks related to the AM process. The results confirmed that nanosized particles were present in the breathing air of the workspace when the ventilation of the AM machine was inadequate. Metal powders were not measured from the workstation air thanks to the closed system and suitable risk control procedures. Still, handling of metal powders and AM materials that can act as skin irritants such as epoxy resins were found to pose a potential risk for workers. This emphasizes the importance of appropriate control measures for ventilation and material handling that should be addressed in AM operations and environment. en
dc.format.extent 13
dc.format.extent 1-13
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher Oxford University Press
dc.relation.ispartofseries Annals of Work Exposures and Health en
dc.rights openAccess en
dc.title Workplace Exposure Measurements of Emission from Industrial 3D Printing en
dc.type A1 Alkuperäisartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä fi
dc.description.version Peer reviewed en
dc.contributor.department Finnish Institute of Occupational Health
dc.contributor.department Materials to Products
dc.contributor.department Department of Mechanical Engineering
dc.subject.keyword additive manufacturing (AM)
dc.subject.keyword gas-phase compounds
dc.subject.keyword industrial 3D printers
dc.subject.keyword nanparticles
dc.subject.keyword occupational health
dc.identifier.urn URN:NBN:fi:aalto-202303152430
dc.identifier.doi 10.1093/annweh/wxad006
dc.type.version publishedVersion

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