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Experimental investigation on time-dependent recycling behaviour of WPCBs in copper flash smelting conditions

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dc.contributor Aalto-yliopisto fi
dc.contributor Aalto University en
dc.contributor.advisor Jokilaakso, Ari, Prof., Aalto University, Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Finland
dc.contributor.advisor Taskinen, Pekka, Prof. Emeritus, Aalto University, Finland
dc.contributor.author Wan, Xingbang
dc.date.accessioned 2021-09-13T09:00:07Z
dc.date.available 2021-09-13T09:00:07Z
dc.date.issued 2021
dc.identifier.isbn 978-952-64-0484-4 (electronic)
dc.identifier.isbn 978-952-64-0483-7 (printed)
dc.identifier.issn 1799-4942 (electronic)
dc.identifier.issn 1799-4934 (printed)
dc.identifier.issn 1799-4934 (ISSN-L)
dc.identifier.uri https://aaltodoc.aalto.fi/handle/123456789/109900
dc.description.abstract With the rapid development of technology, the depletion of limited existing resources as well as more and more serious environmental pollution problems, increasing attention in recent years has been drawn to the responsible processing of end-of-life (EoL) Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE). Waste Printed Circuit Boards (WPCBs) are one of the main components of WEEE, accounting for 40% of the total metal recovery value and they have nowadays become an important part of urban mining. Feeding WPCBs into existing pyrometallurgical processes is developing as an easy-to-adapt and efficient way to recycle them. To fulfil sustainability and circular economy targets, the thermodynamics, kinetics and distribution behaviour of WPCBs during the pyrometallurgical process are the key factors. This study employed a series of experiments to investigate the dynamic behaviour of WPCBs in copper flash smelting process. The kinetic data were obtained by employing a well-developed high temperature reaction–quenching technique followed by direct phase analyses with a scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray detector (SEM-EDS), electron microprobe (EPMA) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS). The industrial copper flash smelting process was firstly simulated on laboratory scale and investigated in this study by smelting industrial chalcopyrite concentrate and FeOx-SiO2 slag at a typical smelting temperature of 1300 °C in both air and argon atmospheres. Then WPCBs were added to this system to track their physical and chemical time-dependent behaviour. Moreover, two groups of WPCB elements (Ag, Au, Pt, Pd, and As, Sb, Bi) were separately added into the matte-slag system, and their time-dependent behaviour in different phases and distribution coefficients were concluded and also compared in detail with those of In, Sn, Ge, Te, La and Nd, which were also treated in the same system. Moreover, the kinetic data and distribution ratios of base metals as well as minor elements (Ag, Au, Pt, Pd, As, Sb, Bi) in the flash smelting process were obtained experimentally and calculated. They can be used in process development for the WPCB precious metal recycling process and, equally, when using complex copper concentrates with high As, Sb and Bi content. Furthermore, the results are essential for complementing CFD models to simulate the flash smelting process more precisely, which is of significance to achieve industrial visualization and artificial intelligence to satisfy the future requirements of Industry 4.0 and even 5.0. en
dc.format.extent 68 + app. 62
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf en
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher Aalto University en
dc.publisher Aalto-yliopisto fi
dc.relation.ispartofseries Aalto University publication series DOCTORAL DISSERTATIONS en
dc.relation.ispartofseries 113/2021
dc.relation.haspart [Publication 1]: Xingbang Wan, Leiting Shen, Ari Jokilaakso, Hürman Eriç and Pekka Taskinen. 2020. Experimental Approach to Matte–Slag Reactions in the Flash Smelting Process. Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy Review 42(4), 231-241. Full text in Acris/Aaltodoc: http://urn.fi/URN:NBN:fi:aalto-202004032750. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/08827508.2020.1737801
dc.relation.haspart [Publication 2]: Xingbang Wan, Jani Fellman, Ari Jokilaakso, Lassi Klemettinen and Miikka Marjakoski. 2018. Behavior of waste printed circuit board (WPCB) materials in the copper matte smelting process. Metals 8, 11, 887. Full text in Acris/Aaltodoc: http://urn.fi/URN:NBN:fi:aalto-201812106168. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/met8110887
dc.relation.haspart [Publication 3]: Xingbang Wan, Pekka Taskinen, Junjie Shi, Lassi Klemettinen and Ari Jokilaakso. 2021. Reaction mechanisms of waste printed circuit board recycling in copper smelting: The impurity elements. Minerals Engineering 160, 106709. Full text in Acris/Aaltodoc: http://urn.fi/URN:NBN:fi:aalto-2020113020567. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mineng.2020.106709
dc.relation.haspart [Publication 4]: Xingbang Wan, Lotta Kleemola, Lassi Klemettinen, Pekka Taskinen and Ari Jokilaakso. 2021. On the kinetic behavior of recycling precious metals (Au, Ag, Pt and Pd) through copper smelting process. Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy, June 9: 1-12. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40831-021-00388-6
dc.subject.other Metallurgy en
dc.title Experimental investigation on time-dependent recycling behaviour of WPCBs in copper flash smelting conditions en
dc.type G5 Artikkeliväitöskirja fi
dc.contributor.school Kemian tekniikan korkeakoulu fi
dc.contributor.school School of Chemical Technology en
dc.contributor.department Kemian tekniikan ja metallurgian laitos fi
dc.contributor.department Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering en
dc.subject.keyword kinetic and mechanisms en
dc.subject.keyword distribution coefficient en
dc.subject.keyword precious metals en
dc.subject.keyword impurity elements en
dc.subject.keyword matte-slag system en
dc.identifier.urn URN:ISBN:978-952-64-0484-4
dc.type.dcmitype text en
dc.type.ontasot Doctoral dissertation (article-based) en
dc.type.ontasot Väitöskirja (artikkeli) fi
dc.contributor.supervisor Jokilaakso, Ari, Prof., Aalto University, Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Finland
dc.opn D.Sc. (Tech.) Eetu-Pekka Heikkinen, University of Oulu, Finland
dc.contributor.lab Metallurgy en
dc.rev Professor Caisa Samuelsson, Luleå University of Technology, SwedenProfessor Yongxiang Yang, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), the Netherlands
dc.date.defence 2021-09-24
local.aalto.acrisexportstatus checked 2021-09-24_1531
local.aalto.infra Raw MatTERS Infrastructure (RAMI)
local.aalto.formfolder 2021_09_13_klo_09_53
local.aalto.archive yes


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