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    AUGURY: an interface for generating soundscapes inspired by ancient divination
    (2023-05-31) Duarte, Juan; Department of Art and Media; Department of Art and Media; Ortiz, Miguel; Marquez-Borbon, Adnan
    This paper presents the development of a multichannel sound installation about atmospheric processes. This instrument is an example of taking inspiration from ancient cultures for NIME design, and of sensing weather to extend the perception of the performer, who also then becomes a listener of atmospheric processes. The interface channels dynamics found in the atmosphere: wind's force and direction, air quality, atmospheric pressure, and electromagnetism. These sources are translated into sound by mapping sensor data into a multichannel sonification composition. The paper outlines the artistic context and expands on its interaction overview.
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    Auralization of Measured Room Transitions in Virtual Reality
    (Audio Engineering Society, 2023-06-03) McKenzie, Thomas; Meyer-Kahlen, Nils; Hold, Christoph; Schlecht, Sebastian J.; Pulkki, Ville; Department of Art and Media; Virtual Acoustics; Department of Information and Communications Engineering; Communication Acoustics: Spatial Sound and Psychoacoustics; Department of Art and Media; Department of Information and Communications Engineering
    To auralize a room’s acoustics in six degrees-of-freedom virtual reality (VR), a dense set of spatial room impulse response (SRIR) measurements is required, so interpolating between a sparse set is desirable. This paper studies the auralization of room transitions by proposing a baseline interpolation method for higher-order Ambisonic SRIRs and evaluating it in VR. The presented method is simple yet applicable to coupled rooms and room transitions. It is based on linear interpolation with RMS compensation, although direct sound, early reflections, and late reverberation are processed separately, whereby the input direct sounds are first steered to the relative direction-of-arrival before summation and interpolated early reflections are directionally equalized. The proposed method is first evaluated numerically, which demonstrates its improvements over a basic linear interpolation. A listening test is then conducted in six degrees-of-freedom VR, to assess the density of SRIR measurements needed in order to plausibly auralize a room transition using the presented interpolation method. The results suggest that, given the tested scenario, a 50-cm to 1-m inter-measurement distance can be perceptually sufficient.
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    Humanizing online learning for enhanced engagement and participation
    (2024-01-25) Kauppinen, Tomi; Azovskaya, Valeriya; Votkin, Taija; Metsäkoivu, Tuuli; Rizzi, Teresa; Morrell, Edward; Aalto University
    Online learning was transformed in the sudden shift to emergency remote teaching caused by COVID-19 pandemic. The incorporation of human-centered and humanistic approaches by some educators demonstrated how online learning environments can be infused with greater humanity and meaning, an approach that we build upon here. The design of online environments is understood as not to emulate the traditional classroom, but to utilize technology in developing new ways of learning. We argue that human connections are essential to learning, and that technology needs to be integrated with care as to not foreground it above all other concerns. We propose here that teacher presence and peer interaction should be a focus of online learning, both being essential for the enhanced engagement and participation of students. Our solutions for humanizing online learning extend from the abstract to the concrete, including our work with educators on tools that facilitate their educational designs. Our research continues as we work to develop new educational solutions to this problem in collaboration with the wider community.
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    Measuring Motion-to-Sound Latency in Virtual Acoustic Rendering Systems
    (Audio Engineering Society, 2023-06-03) Meyer-Kahlen, Nils; Kastemaa, Miranda; Schlecht, Sebastian J.; Lokki, Tapio; Virtual Acoustics; Department of Art and Media; Department of Information and Communications Engineering; Department of Art and Media
    Few studies that employ virtual acoustic rendering systems accurately specify motion-to-sound latency. To make such assessments more common, we present two methods for latency measurements using either impulsive or periodic movements. The methods only require hardware available in every acoustics lab: a small microphone and a loudspeaker. We provide open-source tools that implement analysis according to the methods. The methods are evaluated on a high-quality optical tracking system. In addition, three small trackers based on inertial measurement units were tested. The results show the reliability of the method for the optical system and the difficulties in defining the latency of inertial measurement unit-based trackers.
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    On Robust Estimators of a Sphericity Measure in High Dimension
    (2023) Ollila, Esa; Kim, Hyon-Jung; Department of Information and Communications Engineering; Department of Information and Communications Engineering; Yi, Mengxi; Nordhausen, Klaus
    The need to test (or estimate) sphericity arises in various applications in statistics, and thus the problem has been investigated in numerous papers. Recently, estimates of a sphericity measure are needed in high-dimensional shrink- age covariance matrix estimation problems, wherein the (oracle) shrinkage param- eter minimizing the mean squared error (MSE) depends on the unknown sphericity parameter. The purpose of this chapter is to investigate the performance of robust sphericity measure estimators recently proposed within the framework of elliptically symmetric distributions when the data dimensionality, p, is of similar magnitude as the sample size, n. The population measure of sphericity that we consider here is defined as the ratio of the mean of the squared eigenvalues of the scatter matrix parameter relative to the mean of its eigenvalues squared. We illustrate that robust sphericity estimators based on the spatial sign covariance matrix (SSCM) or M- estimators of scatter matrix provide superior performance for diverse covariance matrix models compared to sphericity estimators based on the sample covariance matrix (SCM) when distributions are heavy-tailed and .n = O(p). At the same time, they provide equivalent performance when the data are Gaussian. Our examples also illustrate the important role that the sphericity plays in determining the attainable accuracy of the SCM
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    Tietojärjestelmät ja sosiaalipalveluiden tiedolla johtaminen
    (Kunnallistieteen yhdistys, 2023) Salovaara, Samuel; Surakka, Anne; Silén, Marianne; Lääveri, Tinja; University of Lapland; University of Eastern Finland; Professorship Viitanen Johanna
    Artikkelissa käsitellään tiedolla johtamista sosiaalipalveluissa keskittyen tietojärjestelmiin merkittävinä tiedontuotannon ja -hallinnan välineinä. Tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan tiedolla johtamisen prosessimallin avulla, miten tietojärjestelmät tukevat tiedolla johtamista sosiaalipalveluissa. Empiiristä kyselyaineistoa (n = 145) analysoidaan määrällisesti kuvailevilla menetelmillä ja moniluokitteluanalyysillä sekä näitä täydentävällä laadullisella analyysillä. Tulokset paljastavat merkittäviä puutteita tietojärjestelmien tietotuotteissa ja -palveluissa sekä sen, ettei sosiaalialan johtajien tietotarpeita ole huomioitu riittävästi. Julkisella sektorilla tietojärjestelmän tuki tiedolla johtamiselle havaittiin yleisesti heikommaksi verrattuna yksityiseen ja kolmanteen sektoriin. Tietojärjestelmän käytettävyyden ja tiedolla johtamisen tuen välillä havaittu yhteys korostaa käytettävyyden merkitystä sosiaalipalveluiden tietojärjestelmien kehittämisessä.
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    Tekninen selvitys : Tarkkoja elementtejä helposti
    (Rakenteiden Mekaniikan Seura ry, 2023) Aalto, Jukka; Rakennustekniikan laitos
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    Proactive Resource Allocation for Aggregated VLC/RF Networks With Outdated CSI
    (IEEE, 2024-01-11) Bozanis, Dimitrios; Evgenidis, Nikos G.; Papanikolaou, Vasilis K.; Dowhuszko, Alexis A.; Tegos, Sotiris A.; Diamantoulakis, Panagiotis D.; Karagiannidis, George K.; Aristotle University of Thessaloniki; Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg; Department of Information and Communications Engineering; University of Macedonia; Department of Information and Communications Engineering
    In this paper, the case of an aggregated VLC/RF network is presented, where the users can be served simultaneously by both a visible light communication (VLC) carrier and a radio-frequency (RF) carrier to increase their achievable data rate. The optimal resource allocation in the network is dependent on always having accurate channel state information (CSI), otherwise, in the case of outdated CSI, the system is prone to sub-optimally allocating resources and, due to the limited coverage of VLC, users may also experience outage. A closed-form expression for the coverage probability is presented for a user moving randomly in the cell. Using this, a proactive resource allocation algorithm is proposed that takes into account outdated CSI which can occur due to user movement, and ensures the outage probability is low in the network without diminishing the average achievable data rate of users. Finally, simulation results validate the proposed analysis and showcase the effectiveness of this approach.
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    Structure from Motion-Based Mapping for Autonomous Driving: Practice and Experience
    (ACM, 2024-01-13) Zhanabatyrova, Aziza; Souza Leite, Clayton; Xiao, Yu; Department of Information and Communications Engineering; Department of Information and Communications Engineering
    Accurate and up-to-date 3D maps, often represented as point clouds, are crucial for autonomous vehicles. Crowd-sourcing has emerged as a low-cost and scalable approach for collecting mapping data utilizing widely available dashcams and other sensing devices. However, it is still a non-trivial task to utilize crowdsourced data, such as dashcam images and video, to efficiently create or update high-quality point clouds using technologies like Structure from Motion (SfM). This study assesses and compares different image matching options available in open-source SfM software, analyzing their applicability and limitations for mapping urban scenes in different practical scenarios. Furthermore, the study analyzes the impact of various camera setups (i.e., the number of cameras and their placement) and weather conditions on the quality of the generated 3D point clouds in terms of completeness and accuracy. Based on these analyses, our study provides guidelines for creating more accurate point clouds.
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    Chance, Strategy, and Change: The Structure of Contingency in the Evolution of the Nokia Corporation, 1986–2015
    (Academy of Management, 2023-12-18) Aspara, Jaakko; Lamberg, Juha-Antti; Sihvonen, Antti; Tikkanen, Henrikki; Hanken School of Economics; University of Jyväskylä; Department of Marketing; Department of Marketing
    Earlier research has analyzed how chance influences strategic choices, yet it has largely ignored the processes that chance events generate. We address this issue by analyzing how chance events and political dynamics coproduce strategic change. We study the history of the Nokia Corporation between 1986 and 2015, focusing on the event structures that led to the divestment of core businesses on two separate occasions. Our findings show how chance events and resulting political dynamics generate periods of collective indeterminacy where multiple, competing strategic scenarios become apparent. These emerge either directly from chance events or indirectly from political dynamics as coalitions translate chance events into their preferred scenarios. The search for a new strategic direction then ensues through the emergence and elimination of alternative scenarios until an acceptable scenario is converged upon, ending the period of collective indeterminacy.
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    Detecting Malicious Accounts in Online Developer Communities Using Deep Learning
    (IEEE, 2023-10-01) Gong, Qingyuan; Liu, Yushan; Zhang, Jiayun; Chen, Yang; Li, Qi; Xiao, Yu; Wang, Xin; Hui, Pan; Fudan University; Tsinghua University; Mobile Cloud Computing; Hong Kong University of Science and Technology; Department of Information and Communications Engineering
    Online developer communities like GitHub allow a massive number of developers to collaborate. However, the openness of the communities makes them vulnerable to different types of malicious attacks, since attackers can easily join these communities and interact with legitimate users. In this work, we propose GitSec, a deep learning-based solution for detecting malicious accounts in online developer communities. GitSec distinguishes malicious accounts from legitimate ones based on the account profiles, dynamic activity characteristics, as well as social interactions. First, GitSec introduces two user activity sequences and applies a parallel neural network design with an attention mechanism to process the sequences. Second, GitSec constructs two graphs to represent the interactions between users according to their repository operations. Especially, graph neural networks and structural hole theory are employed to deal with the two constructed graphs. Third, GitSec makes use of the descriptive features to enhancethe detection performance. The final judgement is made by a decision maker implemented by a supervised machine learning-based classifier. Based on the real-world data of GitHub users, our comprehensive evaluations show that GitSec achieves a better performance than state-of-the-art solutions, with an AUC value of 0.916.
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    Metaphors in co-designing a digital healthcare platform : the case of the Brain House for the Health Village
    (Editoriale scientifica, 2023-06-01) Cleland Silva, Tricia; Sorsa, Virpi; Hyytiäinen, Salla; Ylä-Soininmäki-Pyöriä, Mea; Hanken School of Economics; Department of Marketing; University of Helsinki; Department of Marketing
    This empirical and method study explored the co-design processes of online public health care services for a national digital platform in Finland. The aim of the research was to understand how multi-stakeholders co-designed content for online services of a digital platform, and how metaphors impacted collaborative sensemaking processes and action. Our research design applied qualitative interviews, observations, and two workshops with Collaborative Story Craft method to explore the narratives and the sensemaking processes of multi-stakeholders involved in the co-design of the Brain House for the Health Village. The Brain House represents the specialization of neurology and is one of 32 houses for the Health Village, which is nationally accessible and coordinated by the five main university hospitals. Through the interviews and the workshops, we argue that the metaphor of the “Brain House” of the “Health Village” revealed a metaphoric field that facilitated collective sensemaking and leveraged collaboration among multi-stakeholders and researchers themselves.
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    Smoothing ADMM for Sparse-Penalized Quantile Regression with Non-Convex Penalties
    (IEEE, 2023-12-29) Mirzaeifard, Reza; Venkategowda, Naveen K.D.; Gogineni, Vinay Chakravarthi; Werner, Stefan; Norwegian University of Science and Technology; Linköping University; University of Southern Denmark; Department of Information and Communications Engineering; Department of Information and Communications Engineering
    This paper investigates quantile regression in the presence of non-convex and non-smooth sparse penalties, such as the minimax concave penalty (MCP) and smoothly clipped absolute deviation (SCAD). The non-smooth and non-convex nature of these problems often leads to convergence difficulties for many algorithms. While iterative techniques such as coordinate descent and local linear approximation can facilitate convergence, the process is often slow. This sluggish pace is primarily due to the need to run these approximation techniques until full convergence at each step, a requirement we term as a secondary convergence iteration. To accelerate the convergence speed, we employ the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) and introduce a novel single-loop smoothing ADMM algorithm with an increasing penalty parameter, named SIAD, specifically tailored for sparse-penalized quantile regression. We first delve into the convergence properties of the proposed SIAD algorithm and establish the necessary conditions for convergence. Theoretically, we confirm a convergence rate of $o({k^{-\frac{1}{4}}})$ for the sub-gradient bound of the augmented Lagrangian, where $k$ denotes the number of iterations. Subsequently, we provide numerical results to showcase the effectiveness of the SIAD algorithm. Our findings highlight that the SIAD method outperforms existing approaches, providing a faster and more stable solution for sparse-penalized quantile regression.
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    Two-Stage Attenuation Filter for Artificial Reverberation
    (IEEE, 2024-01-10) Valimaki, Vesa; Prawda, Karolina; Schlecht, Sebastian J.; Department of Information and Communications Engineering; Audio Signal Processing; Department of Art and Media
    Delay networks are a common parametric method to synthesize the late part of the room reverberation. A delay network consists of several feedback loops, each containing a delay line and an attenuation filter, which approximates the same decay rate by appropriately setting the frequency-dependent loop gain. A remaining challenge is the design of the attenuation filters on a wide frequency range based on a measured room impulse response. This letter proposes a novel two-stage attenuation filter structure, sharpening the design. The first stage is a low-order pre-filter approximating the overall shape and determining the decay at the two ends of the frequency range, namely at the dc and the Nyquist limit. The second filter, an equalizer, fine-tunes the gain at different frequencies, such as on one-third-octave bands. It is shown that the proposed design is more accurate and robust than previous methods. A design example applying the proposed method to an interleaved velvet-noise reverberator is also exhibited. The proposed two-stage attenuation filter is a step toward a realistic parametric simulation of measured room impulse responses.
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    Unmanned aerial vehicle localization using angle of departure from a single base station and dead-reckoning
    (Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2024-01) Rajasekaran, Akash; Meles, Mehari; Virrankoski, Reino; Jäntti, Riku; Department of Information and Communications Engineering; Department of Information and Communications Engineering
    Localization in GNSS-denied environments for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has recently gained significant interest from the research community. Most of the research is focused primarily on visual localization. This paper examines an algorithm which employs angle of departure and UAVs payload sensor data for UAV localization. First the algorithm uses multiple angle of departures from a single base station and a travel calculated by applying dead-reckoning on the UAVs inertial measurement unit (IMU), to compute UAV location in 2D coordinates. The 2D location estimate is then fed into a modified extended Kalman filter, which employs the estimate, IMU and barometer data to compute the 3D coordinates for UAV. For the simulation, simulation-in-the-loop accompanied by Arducopter and MAVLink is used to simulate different trajectories and collect the required data for the algorithm. The algorithm is validated by comparing the extended Kalman filter estimates with IMU dead-reckoned positions. Three simulations were performed, consisting of linear, zigzag, and curved trajectories. A (Formula presented.) percentile error of 2.5 and 4 m is achieved for the x-coordinate and y-coordinate, respectively, on the zigzag and curved trajectories. Interestingly, the linear trajectory showed a larger localization error in its y-coordinate.
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    Green New Dilemmas
    (Icaria Editorial, 2022-12) Bordera, Juan; Coronel, Alberto; Pedregal Villodres, Alejandro; CSIC; Department of Art and Media; Department of Art and Media
    The article explores the three main dilemmas faced by the so-called Green New Deals: the biophysical dilemma posed by their energy and material costs, the political dilemma posed by their extractivist, colonial and authoritarian inertias, and, finally, the cultural dilemma linked to the social, electoral and discursive imaginaries that these proposals reinforce. In the center of the triangle formed by these Green New Dilemmas, the text states what it considers to be the greatest limitation of these proposals: the strategic and structural hesitation with respect to their relationship with the capitalist mode of production. As a way out of these dilemmas, the article defends a democratic and internationalist degrowth that does not foster political hope and technological optimism based on the creation and discursive abstraction of large «green sacrifice zones».
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    "You really are a thing!": Queering relations with the more-than-human world
    (2023-12) Ylirisku, Henrika; Slotte Dufva, Tomi; Department of Art and Media; Department of Art and Media; Fredriksen, Biljana C.; Haukeland, Per Ingvar
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    Service Design as a Sustainability Assessment Approach for Circular Business Models Case: Assessment of Finnish circular companies' business models from the service design perspective
    (2022-06-24) Sustar, Helena; Helena Sustar Tmi
    Climate changes, overpopulation, resources overuse and ecological catastrophes require companies to embrace a circular economy and improve existing circular business models (CBMs). Due to their novelty, CBMs have been critiqued concerning their sustainability input at the company level. This paper contributes to the conference theme and session by assessing existing CBMs' sustainability using alternative sustainability assessment approach service design (SD) in three areas: innovation, which is crucial for sustainable business development enabling greater sustainability of CBMs; sustainable customer experiences on a human level allowing progressive organisational sustainability, and transparency in companies' internal and external processes indicating high sustainability processes area. A pilot study assessed 16 Finnish companies with four CBMs in seven industries to answer how sustainable are CBMs across different industries when adopting SD as a sustainability assessment approach? The author completed an assessment at the university SD educational process for professionals. It consisted of CBMs analysis adopting various design tools and a redesign conducted at the virtual workshop. Results revealed high sustainability performance in groundbreaking technological innovation (n=8) reinforced with innovative CBM (n=6) and limited sustainability performance in all other areas: limited customer-oriented services and poor user experiences (n=2), unfamiliarity with customer needs (n=9), haziness in the service life cycle (n=6), supply chain (n=4), value chain (n=5), and waste management (n=6). Therefore the short answer to RQ would be that pertinent CBMs are sustainable partly. Finally, the study demonstrates promising results when adopting SD as a sustainability assessment approach; however, the author recommends using other established procedures.
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    The Profession of Research Management and Administration in Finland
    (2023-11-29) Backman, Jaana; Haverinen, Soile; Bingham, Ella; University of Eastern Finland; University of Turku; Research Services; Kerridge, Simon; Poli, Susi; Yang-Yoshihara, Mariko
    Finland aims to increase its research and development (R&D) expenditure to 4% of gross domestic product (GDP) by 2030. The parliamentary working group proposed to advance Finland’s research, development and innovation objectives which are now strongly committed by the Finnish government. This will allow universities to invest in the research and innovation not only more in the future but also in the long-term and sustainable way. This would also provide opportunities and challenge the national research management and administration (RMA) community to develop the RMA profession, not only to increase the number of RMAs, but also to better meet the more diverse and complex tasks of the future RMA profession. Finn-ARMA creates a good platform for co-operation between RMAs in various positions and for the professionalisation of the current community and its future new members.
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    Intermedia, Multimedia and, Media
    (2023-12-01) Friedman, Ken; Diaz-Kommonen, Lily; Tongji University; Department of Art and Media; Department of Art and Media; Bruhn, Jørgen; López-Varela Azcárate, Asun; de Paiva Vieira, Miriam
    This chapter recovers the lost history of intermedia. This history relates to the earliest use of the term intermedia, a word coined in 1965 by Fluxus co-founder Dick Higgins. Intermedia traces its development from earlier periods into the modern context of work by Fluxus artists who blended conceptual art, technical media, social concerns, events, music, and what would come to be performance art. The chapter also seeks to clarify the notion of intermedia in relation to other contemporary terms such as multimedia and new media. We argue that the concept of intermedia has many pasts and histories. We can view these from different frames of reference, and each frame points to different directions with different and interesting futures. This broad framework enables us to consider the intersections of old technologies and new. Such a framework permits us to develop robust research programs that deliver information, education, entertainment, and art in useful and useable forms.