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ItemSpace and Time in Hybrid Teaching and Learning Environments: Two Cases and Design Principles(Springer Nature Singapore, 2022) Leinonen, Teemu; Mäkelä, Tiina; Median laitos; Department of Media; Learning Environments research group; Taiteiden ja suunnittelun korkeakoulu; School of Arts, Design and ArchitectureThe opportunities and challenges of teaching and learning in the same and different space and time have been discussed in the field of distance education for several decades. Within COVID-19, a new type of experimenting and research interest in so-called hybrid learning has emerged. In this article, we present the results from exploring “hybridity” from the perspective of classical categorizations of different forms of learning in terms of time and space. We explored the phenomenon through two cases with the same high-level strategic objective, serving hybrid interaction. In case A, we evaluated university library spaces renovated to serve hybrid teaching and learning. In case B, the focus was on the implementation of a university course redesigned during the pandemic from blended learning to include more hybrid interaction. Multifaceted data was collected, including video recordings (case A), recorded videoconference sessions, and written student feedback (case B). Qualitative data analyses relied on ethnography and contextual inquiry. Based on the analyses of the case studies, we propose five design principles for designing hybrid teaching and learning that aim to overcome the limitations of the same space and time: (1) Ensuring access to required tools, infrastructure, and support; (2) Design primarily for same time, different place learning; (3) Design primarily for same time, same place learning; (4) Less is more; and (5) “Le bon Dieu est dans le détail.” These design principles provide guidance to the design process of hybrid teaching and learning to increase the chances of reaching a successful solution. ItemAnticipated environmental sustainability of personal fabrication(Elsevier, 2015) Kohtala, Cindy; Hyysalo, Sampsa; Muotoilun laitos; Department of Design; INUSE Users and Innovation Research Group; Taiteiden ja suunnittelun korkeakoulu; School of Arts, Design and ArchitectureDistributed manufacturing is rapidly proliferating to citizen level via the use of digital fabrication equipment, especially in dedicated “makerspaces”. The sustainability benefits of citizens’ personal fabrication are commonly endorsed. However, to assess how these maker practitioners actually deal with environmental issues, these practitioners and their practices need to be studied. Moreover research on the environmental issues in personal fabrication is nascent despite the common perception that the digital technologies can become disruptive. The present paper is the first to report on how practitioners assess the environmental sustainability of future practices in this rapidly changing field. It does so through an envisioning workshop with leading-edge makers. The findings show that these makers are well able to envision the future of their field. Roughly 25% of the issues covered had clear environmental implications. Within these, issues of energy use, recycling, reusing and reducing materials were covered widely by environmentally- oriented participants. In contrast, issues related to emerging technologies, materials and practices were covered by other participants, but their environmental implications remained unaddressed. The authors concluded there is a gap between different maker subcultures in their sustainability orientations and competences. Further research on the environmental aspects of real-life maker practices and personal fabrication technologies now could help avert negative impacts later, as the maker phenomenon spreads. This knowledge should also be directed to developing targeted environmental guidelines and solutions for personal fabrication users, which are currently lacking. Potential also lies in seeking to enhance dialogue between pro-environmental and new-technology-oriented practitioners through shared spaces, workshops and conferences. ItemDesigners by any other name: exploring the sociomaterial practices of vernacular garment menders(Design Research Society, 2018) Durrani, Marium; Muotoilun laitos; Department of Design; Taiteiden ja suunnittelun korkeakoulu; School of Arts, Design and ArchitectureStudies around the cultures of design indicate a mutually constitutive relationship designers share with materials when in practice. However, professional designers are not the only ones experiencing proximate relations with materials. With the recent emergence of community-based repair workshops, non-professional designer practices of fixing things, like garments, reveal sites of active material tinkering aiding transitions in current clothing disposal patterns. Using qualitative research methods and a sociomaterial theoretical lens, this paper takes the mending activities of non-professional menders in communal repair workshops in the city of Helsinki, Finland, as its point of departure. The study identifies these menders as vernacular menders and explores their dynamic practices to reveal the situated, embodied, routinized yet creative process of mending. The created outputs by the vernacular menders result in what is termed as informal design and point towards extending mainstream conceptualizations on design and creativity. In such a way, suggesting new insights on sociomaterial-enabled practices emerging around the brims of professional design. ItemMobile apps for reflection in learning: A design research in K-12 education(Wiley-Blackwell, 2014) Leinonen, Teemu; Keune, Anna; Veermans, Marjaana; Toikkanen, Tarmo; Median laitos; Department of Media; Learning Environments Research Group; Oppimisympäristöjen tutkimusryhmä; Taiteiden ja suunnittelun korkeakoulu; School of Arts, Design and ArchitectureThis study takes a design-based research approach to explore how applications designed for mobile devices could support reflection in learning in K-12 education. Use of mobile devices is increasing in schools. Most of the educational apps support single-person use of interactive learning materials, simulations and learning games. Apps designed to correspond to collaborative learning paradigms, such as collaborative progressive inquiry or project-based learning, are scarce. In these pedagogical approaches, reflection plays an important role. This paper presents a design-based research study of mobile device apps, ReFlex and TeamUp, that are specifically designed for use in student-centred and collaborative school learning, in which continuous reflection is an important part of the learning process. The design of the apps has relied on earlier research on digital tools for reflection and research about mobile devices in classroom learning. The design of the apps was accomplished as part of the qualitative design-based research conducted with a total of 165 teachers in 13 European countries. As a characteristic for a design-based research, the results of the study are twofold: practical and theoretical. The apps designed, ReFlex and TeamUp, are practical results of the qualitative research carried out in schools with teachers and students to understand the design challenges and opportunities in schools, to renew their pedagogical practices and to take new tools in use. To understand better the capacity of the apps to facilitate reflection, we analysed the apps in light of earlier studies concerning the levels of reflection that digital tools may support and categorisations of affordances that mobile device apps may provide for classroom learning. Our research indicates that there is potential for fostering the practice of reflection in classroom learning through the use of apps for audio-visual recordings. ItemSearching Knowledge CinemaSense as a Case Study in Collaborative Production of a WWW Service in Two Universities(Springer, 2006) Raike, Antti; Median laitos; Department of Media; Taiteiden ja suunnittelun korkeakoulu; School of Arts, Design and ArchitectureIn this paper I will present design research carried out between 1999–2004 at the University of Art and Design Helsinki in collaboration with the Classroom Teacher Training Programme for Finnish Sign Language Users of Jyv¨askyl¨a University, Finland. The aim of the project was to produce an accessible web-based study product, as well as to clarify the sign language students’ deepening of knowledge and conceptualization related to the subject of cinematic expression, as well as their collaboration during the web-based course. The aim of the design research was connected to the general aim of inclusion, for a shared university for all, which adapts flexibly to the needs of different and diverse students. The design research was positioned in the areas of film art and pedagogy. By merging participatory action research and WWW production a collaborative study concept dealing with cinematic expression entitled, CinemaSense, was developed and produced as part of the research work. It can be accessed at http://elokuvantaju.uiah.fi/. The usability and accessibility of the CinemaSense was observed during web-based courses in cinematic expression during 2001, with the help of a concept survey and network-based communication. ItemThe Story of MIT-Fablab Norway: Community Embedding of Peer Production(Journal of Peer Production, 2014) Kohtala, Cindy; Bosqué, Camille; Muotoilun laitos; Department of Design; NODUS Sustainable Design Research Group; Taiteiden ja suunnittelun korkeakoulu; School of Arts, Design and ArchitectureMIT-Fablab Norway was one of the first Fab Labs ever established, in northern Norway in 2002. Despite this auspicious beginning to a network that is rapidly growing, surprisingly little has been written about the genesis of the network or the Fab Lab itself. We therefore aim to contribute to this knowledge gap with a narrative account of our independent ethnographic research visits to the Lab. We combine our researcher perspectives, which are informed by, on the one hand, Aesthetics and a phenomenological understanding and, on the other, Science and Technology Studies, with Design Research bridging both. Our account aims to richly describe the Lab’s unique profile in the MIT Fab Lab network as a socially shaped entity and product of a particular time and place. Most salient in this narrative is the role of its charismatic founder, whose stories and metaphors become vehicles by which we come to understand how a Fab Lab forms its own identity, balancing the relationships with local stakeholders against those with the Fab Lab network; how it promotes certain principles and values of peer production; and how it represents itself to both maker insiders and outsiders. While situated and particular to this Lab, our interpretations may have implications for the trajectories of other Fab Labs and makerspaces, as well as our understanding of peer production as a new paradigm. ItemThe applicability of social network analysis to the study of networked learning(Informa UK Limited, 2011) Toikkanen, Tarmo; Lipponen, Lasse; Median laitos; Department of Media; Learning Environments Research Group (LeGroup); Taiteiden ja suunnittelun korkeakoulu; School of Arts, Design and ArchitectureStudying networked learning (NL) by applying social network analysis (SNA), has gained popularity in recent years. However, it appears that in the context of networked learning the choice of SNA indices is very often dictated by using easily achievable SNA tools. Most studies in this field only involve a single group of students and utilize simple indices, such as density and Freeman's degree centrality. This study uses data collected from 23 groups of pupils and correlates various SNA indices with the pupils' experiences of the learning process, thus identifying SNA indices that actually relate to the experiences of a learning process. The results show that density is not very useful in studying networked learning, and Freeman's degree centrality is meaningful only in certain cases. Further, the study points out several potentially better suited indices for use in further studies of networked learning. ItemLandscape in Green Infrastructures & Interscalar Planning(Saint Petersburg State Polytechnic University, 2015) Galan, Juanjo; Arkkitehtuurin laitos; Department of Architecture; Department of Architecture (Aalto University); Taiteiden ja suunnittelun korkeakoulu; School of Arts, Design and ArchitectureThe transversal and interdisciplinary quality of landscape makes it an essential and useful element in regional and local planning. On the other hand, Green Infrastructures provide an exceptional tool to put in relation different planning scales and offer new possibilities and functions for the design and management of open spaces. The Strategic Plan for the Calderona Mountain Range (Valencia province, Spain) shows how these two concepts: Landscape and Green Infrastructure can work hand in hand to construct a more sustainable and harmonic territory. The Plan defines a multifunctional Green Infrastructure with the aim to preserve and improve the ecological and visual quality of the territory and, at the same time, guide the future evolution of the agricultural, natural and urban areas. In order to fulfill these functions the work was structured in four stages. Firstly, the Landscape Characterization of the whole area (200 km2) permitted, after studying the existing patterns, resources and socio environmental processes, the definition of a system of Landscape Units and Landscape Resources which were, in a second stage, assessed through a public participation process (Landscape Assessment). Once the whole territory had been studied, the Strategic Plan formulates a set of Objectives and Strategies and in its fourth phase defines a set of ten thematic Plans regulating the most important activities and land uses. In this later stage, the “Landscape Plan” was given a leading role since it was guiding through the Green Infrastructure and through its determinations, the performance and evolution of most of the land uses and activities. The Green Infrastructure was primarily based in natural and human systems which could be very easily recognized and incorporated in it. In contrast, the addition of some connectors and specially, of some areas for the control and shaping of urban land, required a more intentional approach. Since the Calderona Mountain Range is part of a Natural Park, a high percentage of the whole territory, basically with a natural character, was included in the Green Infrastructure. In spite of their lower proportion, strategic agricultural areas proved to be a fundamental part of the Infrastructure for controlling urban sprawl. On the other hand, the most valuable open spaces in the urban and peri-urban contexts were essential to introduce the Green Infrastructure in towns, villages and housing estates through a capillary micro system including parks, squares and strategic streets. ItemEcosystems and Sustainable Metabolisms(WIT Press, 2015) Galan, Juanjo; Peiro, Gemma; Fernandez, Alfonso; Arkkitehtuurin laitos; Department of Architecture; Taiteiden ja suunnittelun korkeakoulu; School of Arts, Design and ArchitectureThe Strategic Plan for the Calderona Mountain Range (Valencia, Spain) covers an area of 200 km2 including 5 municipalities located at the northern edge of the Valencia’s Metropolitan Area. The Plan deals with a wide diversity of aspects, being ecology and sustainable development their common denominators. Thus, the analysis of the different territorial layers (forestry, agriculture, natural environment, urban planning, landscape, heritage, tourism & public use, mobility & infrastructures, and economic activity) was developed from an ecological and sustainability focused point of view which is afterwards extended in the definition of regional strategies and in a set of ten thematic plans and eighteen pilot projects. In particular, sustainability, the structural role of ecology and the effective enhancement of the different existing and potential ecosystems, permeate the whole Strategic Plan but are in particular the central elements of the Territorial and Landscape Plan, which includes the definition of a regional and local Green Infrastructure; of the Natural Environment Plan, which identifies the existing and potential plant communities and establishes the conditions for their adequate improvement and maintenance, and, finally, the Sustainable Development Plan, that analyzes the present flows of energy and resources and explores the territorial and urban models which would permit the reinforcement of internal metabolisms and the reduction of ecological footprints. ItemStrategic Territorial Plan for the Calderona Mountain Range(WIT Press, 2015) Galan Vivas, Juan Jose; Arkkitehtuurin laitos; Department of Architecture; Department of Architecture (Aalto University); Taiteiden ja suunnittelun korkeakoulu; School of Arts, Design and ArchitectureCalderona´s outstanding environmental and visual resources have made it one of the preferred destinations for the 1.5 million inhabitants of the Valencia Metropolitan Area, imposing at the same time a strong pressure for urbanization and public use. In this context, the creation in the year 2002 of a Natural Park, has positively released the pressure over this territory but, at the same time, has emphasised some of the most typical rural conflicts: the role and continuity of agriculture, the low sustainability levels of some urban typologies, the lack of a diversified economy, the preservation of local identities and the need of a balanced governance. All these issues are analyzed and developed in the Strategic Territorial Plan for the central area of the Calderona Mountain Range. A plan promoted by 5 municipalities and prepared by a multidisciplinary team. The document includes a multilayer analysis of the territory, the definition of a set of strategies and, finally, 10 thematic plans (Landscape and Territory, Forestry and Natural Heritage, Agriculture & Stockbreeding, Hunting, Urban Planning, Infrastructures and Transport, Cultural Heritage, Tourism and Public Use, Socioeconomic development & Sustainability, and Governance), which were accompanied by 18 pilot studies that exemplified some of their key aspects. The whole Plan shows the benefits of regional and transversal planning and was developed in collaboration with regional and local authorities and in parallel with a public participation process.