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    The EU Vision for Future-Proof Buildings - Perspectives for the Smart Readiness Indicator to Contribute to the Successful Implementation of the Vision
    (Aalto University, 2024) Borgentorp, Eerika; Donghi, Claudio; Junnila, Seppo; Rakennetun ympäristön laitos; Department of Built Environment; Real Estate Business; Insinööritieteiden korkeakoulu; School of Engineering
    Today, the European Union (EU) is leading the transition towards future-proof buildings to support achieving sustainability goals for the built environment. The Smart Readiness Indicator (SRI) is central to this vision and is designed to enhance buildings' energy efficiency, occupant needs, and support for energy flexibility. However, while the SRI aims to standardize smartness in buildings, its efficacy and market acceptance have remained uncertain.  This white paper examines the EU's strategy for future-proof buildings, focusing on the SRI's role as a standard for smartness. It delves into the SRI's assessment methodology, implementation status across EU member states, and global applicability. Additionally, it evaluates the SRI's attractiveness in real estate markets, highlighting challenges in market adoption and the need for regulatory support.  The paper identifies opportunities to enhance the SRI's implementation by drawing on empirical evidence from the Finnish real estate market and international benchmarking case studies. It proposes aligning the SRI with Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) principles to appeal to real estate owners and investors. Furthermore, it suggests expanding the SRI framework to include accessibility metrics, aligning with the EU's focus on modernizing the building stock and promoting inclusivity.  In conclusion, the paper emphasizes the importance of refining the SRI to address the evolving needs of the real estate sector and support the EU's vision for future-proof, resilient, and accessible buildings.
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    Case Vuosaari – Maankäyttöpolitiikan paikallisuus : Smartland-hankkeen monialaisen työryhmän tutkimusraportti
    (Aalto University, 2024) Staffans, Aija; Pulkkinen, Katri-Liisa; SMARTLAND-hanke
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    Liesipalojen syttyminen, vaikutukset ja ehkäisy
    (Aalto University, 2024) Hostikka, Simo; Castagnoli, Emmanuelle; Mikkola, Raimo; Salonen, Heidi; Jhatial, Tarique; Törrö, Rauli; Kallada, Rahul; Aatamila, Marjaleena; Laitinen, Juha; Hassinen, Marko; Toivanen, Pekka; Kiviranta, Kalle; Kuurne, Laura; Ojala, Tarja; Lepistö, Jukka; Rakennustekniikan laitos; Department of Civil Engineering; Insinööritieteiden korkeakoulu; School of Engineering
    Liesipalot ovat merkittävä asumisen turvallisuutta vaarantava ongelma. Liesipalojen syttyminen, vaikutukset ja ehkäisy -tutkimushankkeessa pyrittiin piirtämään kokonaiskuva liesipalojen syistä ja ennaltaehkäisystä sekä luomaan ymmärrys palon jälkeisestä asumisterveellisyydestä. Palotilastojen perusteella liesipalojen määrä on ollut hieman laskeva kuluneen kymmenen vuoden aikana. Kyselytutkimuksen perusteella todellinen liesipalojen määrä voi kuitenkin olla jopa nelinkertainen pelastustoimen tietoon tulleiden palojen määrään verrattuna. Mediaseurannan perusteella vain kymmenesosa liesipaloista tulee uutisoitua. Syttymisen syynä on usein palamiskelpoisen materiaalin jääminen liedelle ja lieden päälle kytkeminen, kytkeytyminen tai jääminen. Kokeissa keittiötarvikkeiden syttymistodennäköisyydeksi saatiin 0,80 +- 0,10 ja syttymisajaksi 378 +- 228 s. Induktioliesi olisi sopiva näiden palojen ehkäisyyn. Osa vaaratilanteista syntyy paistinpannulla olevan rasvan ylikuumentuessa. Tällaisen syttymän todennäköisyydeksi saatiin 0,35 +- 0,09 ja syttymisajaksi 325 +- 100 s. Liesivahti olisi toimiva väline näiden palojen estämiseksi, koska kokeissa liesivahdit havaitsivat vaaran ennen syttymää, paitsi kun jokin eristävä materiaali esti lämpösäteilyn kulkeutumisen. Tehokas suoja sähköliesien syttymiä vastaan saadaankin siis liesivahdin ja induktiolieden yhdistelmällä. Palotehomittausten perusteella suurin palovammojen ja ympäristön syttymisen riski liittyy sulaviin muoveihin, jotka voivat muodostaa laajenevan ja suurella teholla palavan lammikon. Liesipaloista syntyviä haitta-aineita mitattiin sekä laboratoriossa että todellisissa rivitaloasunnoissa. Polysyklisiä aromaattisia hiilivetyjä syntyi eniten ruokaöljyistä, pakastepusseista ja talouspaperista. Aldehydien tuottajina myös puuvilla/polyesteri -patalaput osoittautuivat merkittäviksi. Hankkeessa kehitettiin menetelmä liesipalon jälkeisen tuuletusmäärän arviointiin. Se ottaa huomioon palaneen aineen määrän ja laadun sekä asunnon tilavuuden. Tuuletusaikavaatimusta testattiin rivitaloasunnon palossa ja havaittiin, että kaikkia käytännön tuuletustilanteeseen liittyviä tekijöitä ei vielä tunneta. Esim. alipainetuuletuksen tehoksi havaittiin vain 20-30 % nimellistehosta, koska tilaa sekoittava vaikutus puuttuu. Tutkimustulosten ja sidosryhmille järjestetyn työpajan perusteella kirjoitettiin ohje pienen huoneistopalon jälkeisen asumisterveellisyyden arviointiin.
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    Maritime text/data analytics (sentiment analysis) on cruise ship review data
    (Aalto University, 2024) Akter, Sabina; Romanoff, Jani; Konetekniikan laitos; Department of Mechanical Engineering; Marine and Arctic Technology; Insinööritieteiden korkeakoulu; School of Engineering
    This research report collects customer review data for a case study on the Oasis of the Seas and Freedom, Radiance, Concordia class cruise ships and with aim analyse this extensive data collected in follow-up research papers. Here, the research aims to understand the effect of on-board environmental factors on the passengers' cognitive, affective, physiological, and behavioural responses and word-of-mouth, recommendation, repurchase intention, repeat purchase, and regret regulation of customer loyalty. It is significant to pay attention to such practices to enrich passenger satisfaction. According to the thematic analysis of generated codes, the overview of findings related to onboard environmental factors, responses and loyalty are discussed here.
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    Evaluation of electric scooter deployment in the City of Helsinki: A perspective on sociotechnical transitions dynamics and adaptive governance
    (Aalto University, 2022) Mladenović, Miloš; Dibaj, Samira; Lopatnikov, Daniel; Rakennetun ympäristön laitos; Department of Built Environment; Insinööritieteiden korkeakoulu; School of Engineering
    As part of a wider global transition in urban environments and their mobility systems, Finland and in particular Helsinki, has seen emergence of shared or private, standing, rechargeable lithium-ion battery-electric scooters (e-scooters). Following an increase in the number of emergency cases in the spring and summer of 2021, City of Helsinki has agreed with shared e-scooter operators to introduce a set of temporal and speed restrictions. However, the need for understanding the dynamics of socio-technical transition involving e-scooters and developing the corresponding adaptive governance processes has remained. Thus, this project has focused on the twofold and interdependent problem. The first aspect in focus is behavioural change of urban mobility system users, especially focusing on e-scooter users. The second aspect is institutional change among multi-level/sector transition actors, including all the parties involved in this project and beyond. Overall, the project had four research questions, with corresponding methods. First, in order to understand the surface problem of objective traffic safety, the goal was to analyse spatio-temporal changes in the occurrence and severity of emergency cases. The methods used for this goal centred on retrospective analysis of e-scooter and bicycle related emergency cases. Second, to further understand the revealed behaviour and competences while riding e-scooters, the method focused on the analysis of streetscape video recordings at several locations in the City of Helsinki. Third, for analysing deeper perspectives on user behaviour but also for understanding perspectives from non-users, an online questionnaire and corresponding analysis were deployed. Last, in order to provide suggestions for developing responsible and adaptive governance processes, collaborative research methods have relied on site inspections of street infrastructure and multi-stakeholder interaction focused on a policy design framework. The study finds that the safety level of e-scooter usage in Helsinki has improved over time, approaching the estimated level of safety for cycling. However, intoxication while riding has remained an issue also in 2022. In addition, the e-scooter observations revealed that about a quarter of riders showed very non-cooperative riding behaviours, which also varied based on street infrastructure. Besides these safety issues, other problematic behaviour observed was parents/adults riding with a child on the same e-scooter. Similarly, observational analysis also shows significant use of e-scooters by users under the age of 18, also associated with more unsafe behaviour. Analysis of questionnaire data shows that although most e-scooter users are males aged from late 20s to early 30s, usage in Helsinki includes all income groups and age categories. Leisure and socializing activities are the most common trip purposes, followed by commuting, which is even more common for those using a private e-scooter. In addition, shared e-scooter usage in Helsinki is mostly replacing buses or trams, taxi or other on-demand mobility services, and walking, while private e-scooter usage is more clearly associated with a reduction in private car driving. The most cited reasons for using e-scooters include being in a hurry and trying to travel faster than with other modes, as well as e-scooter riding providing a fun experience. The most cited reasons for not using e-scooters include being satisfied with the current means of travel, lack of a clear necessity, and perceived safety of riding in Helsinki. Both users and non-users agree that there is a need to improve street infrastructure, with non-users suggesting more often the need to improve rules, while users suggesting more often the need to improve parking behaviour. Study recommends further co-development of policies in collaboration between different stakeholders to enable agonistic deliberation about different policy actions, by identifying their effectiveness in terms of behavioural change, as well as their implementability. Further policy measures should be developed and enforced in coordination with both the public and private sector campaigns and educational programs. Moreover, such agonistic collaboration efforts should rely on development of data collection and sharing procedures among different stakeholders. Besides overarching policies, there is a clear need to improve cycling infrastructure and the use of temporary traffic arrangements in specific locations in Helsinki. Finally, if Finland is to be at the forefront of urban mobility system transformation, there is a need to further develop a culture of adaptive multi-stakeholder governance in the transport sector and beyond.
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    Laboratory study on corrosion of steel rebars in anoxic environments - Deliverable 2.2: ConLoT project – Long-term testing of the durability of concrete at final disposal conditions
    (Aalto University, 2023) Al-Neshawy, Fahim; Ba Ragaa, Abobaker; Punkki, Jouni; Rakennustekniikan laitos; Department of Civil Engineering; Concrete technology group; Insinööritieteiden korkeakoulu; School of Engineering
    In this study, an investigate of the chloride ions causing corrosion of six different reinforcing bars by considering the effect of the chemical composition of the steel corrosion phenomenon was performed. This report includes 2 parts: (i) literature review and (ii) experimental program. The literature review describes the fundamental aspects of the chloride induced corrosion of the reinforcement steel bars and the parameters influencing it. Also, a survey about the different electrochemical measurement of the corrosion of reinforcement steel, mainly non-destructive testing techniques, were presented in the literature review. The experimental program presents the (i) selection of different steel rebars based on their chemical composition, (ii) the concrete materials and mix design used in the investigation and (iii) the preparation of the test reinforced concrete specimens and (iv) corrosion measurements. Six different A500HW – bars were selected by steel their chemical composition analysis and prepared for testing in eight concrete specimens each for a total of 48 separate concrete specimens. The reinforced concrete specimens and initial corrosion measurements were performed in the year 2012 and 2013. The corrosion measurements has been studied by different electrochemical testing methods during the years 2013 and 2022. The observations during the measurement periods are not directly demonstrating that the internal composition of the steel would be relevant to the initiation period of the chloride-induced corrosion. The electrochemical testing results show high corrosion risk of the reinforcement steel bars, which was supported by the visual inspection of the specimens.
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    Työntekijöiden suojaaminen ilmavälitteisiä taudinaiheuttajia vastaan toimistoympäristössä - Työsuojelurahaston tutkimushanke #210099 (SUOJAILMA)
    (Aalto University, 2023) Lestinen, Sami; Kilpeläinen, Simo; Kosonen, Risto; Konetekniikan laitos; Department of Mechanical Engineering; LVI-tekniikka; Insinööritieteiden korkeakoulu; School of Engineering
    The COVID pandemic showed that airborne transmission is an important route for pathogen spreading among office workers. People carrying pathogens may be completely unaware of it so protection against airborne transmission is important in office environments. Different face masks became familiar for most as a protection method during the recent pandemic but there are also other means to protect people such as air purifiers and partitions acting as flow obstruction. Also, air distribution can be used to reduce contaminant concentrations in the occupied zone.  In this Finnish Work Environment Fund project laboratory measurements and computer simulations were used to study the effect of air purifiers, masks, and air distribution onto pathogen exposure when an infected person spreads aerosols in a room either through breathing or coughing. A coughing machine and a breathing thermal manikin were used to spread and receive aerosols, respectively. Airborne pathogens were modelled with paraffin oil -based aerosol and MS2 viruses, and effectiveness of different protection methods was studied. Additionally, ventilation effectiveness and contaminant removal efficiency were investigated with SF6 as a marker gas. Computer simulations were conducted with CFD. The measurement results showed that masks and air purifiers were the best means of protection against pathogens transmitted via breathing whereas flow obstruction with e.g. partitions or the infector wearing a mask or visor was effective against coughing. With mixing ventilation contaminant concentrations were similar throughout the occupied zone but displacement ventilation introduced both temporal and spatial differences. Both the best and the worst local concentrations were achieved with displacement ventilation. CFD simulations showed that in a large open office an infector at the center of the space spreads contaminants efficiently in all directions. When the infector was seated in the corner, the contaminants became attached to walls and moved alongside them outside the occupied zone. As expected, the best situation was when the infector sat near the exhaust. Even with an undersized (purifier airflow equal to space supply airflow) air purifier, the size of high-concentration zones in the open office could be clearly reduced. It can be deduced from the results that there are many effective ways to protect workers against airborne transmission of pathogens in office environments, and the best outcome can be achieved by combining them. Masks can prevent pathogens from entering the space, air purifiers remove pathogens already in the space or entering it, and flow obstruction with e.g. partitions prevents fast-moving pathogens originating from coughs and sneezes from reaching the exposed person. Proper air distribution on the other hand helps transfer the pathogens away from the occupied zone.
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    Liikuntatilojen sisäilman ja sisäympäristön laatu ja mahdolliset vaikutukset työntekijöiden hyvinvointiin ja terveyteen (LIIKU) - Työsuojelurahaston hanke 200068 Loppuraportti
    (Aalto University, 2023) Vornanen, Camilla (toim.); Rakennustekniikan laitos; Department of Civil Engineering; Indoor Environment Technology; Insinööritieteiden korkeakoulu; School of Engineering
    The aim of the LIIKU project was to study the measured and perceived quality of the indoor environment of Finnish indoor sports facilities. The concentrations of chemical and particulate exposures measured in the 14 studied sports facilities in no case exceeded the national action limits. The rate of occupancy had a significant impact on the microbial concentrations measured from airborne particles in indoor sports facilities. The study revealed clear differences in bacterial and fungal levels between different sports facilities, but also great variation between different spaces within individual buildings, likely driven by type and use of the indoor spaces, in addition to occupancy. About half of the sports halls met the current acoustic regulations. Some of the spaces that did not meet the regulations, can, however, still be of high quality from the users' point of view in terms of acoustic properties. For some halls, measures to improve acoustics, such as sound-absorbing materials, were recommended. The modelling of indoor conditions and ventilation in one sports hall and the simulation of different temperature setpoints showed that a moderate lowering of the temperature setpoints could reduce energy consumption without impairing the thermal comfort of athletes. In the operation, maintenance and automation control of the ventilation systems of sports halls, deficiencies were found that may affect the operation of ventilation. Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from flooring materials used in indoor sports facilities were investigated in micro chambers and significant differences were found. The use of low-emitting materials is recommended to reduce the total number of VOCs and overall exposure to those in sports facilities. Also, a new combination adsorbent material used in air sampling was tested against traditional adsorbents. As a result, VOCs were not detected better with the new adsorbent than with the adsorbent used in standard methods. The most common indoor environment -related complaints perceived by employees of sports facilities were similar to those previously reported from other public buildings: noise, stuffy and poor air, insufficient ventilation, and detectable dust or dirt. Regarding usability, special attention should be paid to acoustics and sound insulation, the presence of sufficient amounts and good usability of storage facilities, and the overall appearance and cleanliness of the premises. The study was conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic's restrictions on gatherings, so the results are applicable to conditions in the buildings without or with limited number of occupants. Further examinations are recommended to clarify the conditions during normal or high occupancy.
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    Kiinteän omaisuuden vallankäytön valvontamahdollisuudet
    (Aalto University, 2023) Riekkinen, Kirsikka; Syrman, Simo; Krigsholm, Pauliina; Ekroos, Ari; Rakennetun ympäristön laitos; Department of Built Environment; Insinööritieteiden korkeakoulu; School of Engineering
    Tässä tutkimuksessa on tutkittu kiinteän omaisuuden vallankäytön mekanismeja, niistä viranomaisrekistereihin tallennettavaa tietoa, sekä vallankäytön valvontaa nykyhetkessä ja viranomaisvalvonnan lisäämistarvetta tulevaisuudessa. Tutkimus on toteutettu Aalto-yliopiston ja Maanmittauslaitoksen yhteistutkimuksena. Tutkimus on jatkoa edellisenä vuonna valmistuneelle huoltovarmuuden turvaaminen osana kiinteän omaisuuden valvontaa -hankkeelle, jossa selvitettiin kiinteistöjen suoran omistuksen valvontaa. Tutkimuksessa syvennettiin aihetta haastattelututkimuksena, jossa selvitettiin epäsuoran kiinteistöomistuksen, esimerkiksi asunto-osakkeiden, sekä muiden kiinteän omaisuuden vallankäytön mekanismien, kuten maanvuokran, valvontatarvetta. Tutkimuksen tulokset osoittavat, että valvontamekanismien vahvistamisen tarkempi tarkastelu tulisi ensisijaisesti ulottaa sellaisten yritysten omistuspohjan selvittämiseen, jotka omistavat kiinteistön tai kiinteistöjä. Lisäksi suositellaan maanvuokrasopimusten kirjaamisvelvollisuuden toteutumisen vahvistamista. Tutkimuksen tulokset eivät tue yksittäisten asunto-osakehuoneistojen omistuksen ja vaihdannan valvonnan lisäämistä, vaan huomio tulee kiinnittää tilanteisiin, joissa asunto-osakeyhtiön enemmistö tai koko osakekannasta siirtyy yhden tahon omistukseen. Selkeä johtopäätös kuitenkin on, että eri viranomaisten tiedonsaantioikeutta tulisi selkeyttää säätämällä siitä nykyistä tarkemmin.
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    Comprehensive state-of-the-art report for long-term behaviour of concrete structures in repository environment
    (Aalto University, 2023) Al-Neshawy, Fahim; Abo Ba Ragaa, Baker; Punkki, Jouni; Rakennustekniikan laitos; Department of Civil Engineering; Insinööritieteiden korkeakoulu; School of Engineering
    Reinforced concrete is widely used in nuclear disposal facilities, especially those for low and intermediate level wastes (LILW). The design service life of modern concrete is however no longer than about 100 years. During this time, it has been noticed that the material gives a good performance in many environments, however several chemical aggressive species in water, soil or the atmosphere may react with the cement mineralogical phases and weaken its integrity. The challenge of concrete in LILW nuclear disposal repositories is therefore its long-term stability. The reinforced concrete in disposal repository has a design life of at least 500 years and therefore, these structures should remain durable until this target service life is fulfilled and no sudden failure should occur after this period. The aim of this state-of-the art report is to study the following topics related to the performance of reinforced concrete structures in the final disposal repository condition: (i) the factors affecting the long-term behaviour of concrete structure in underground waste repositories, (ii) the transport process of chemical ions in cementitious materials, (iii) the deterioration mechanisms of concrete structures at final LILW disposal condition and (iv) the interaction between of concrete structure deformation, cracking and external stresses and the behaviour of concrete structure and their service life under disposal conditions.
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    WAT Thesis: Doctoral Thesis Process Summaries from Water and Environmental Engineering Research Group, 2002–2022
    (Aalto University, 2023) Keskinen, Marko; Taka, Maija; Salo, Heidi; Rakennetun ympäristön laitos; Department of Built Environment; Insinööritieteiden korkeakoulu; School of Engineering
    Introduction: The varied ways of getting there This book both celebrates and makes visible the diverse processes that lead to a Doctoral Thesis. We did this by inviting the authors to write so-called “Process Summaries” i.e. short descriptions of the process that ultimately led to their Doctoral Thesis. While writing those summaries, we advised the authors to reflect the most rewarding and challenging parts of the process and to consider what kind of twists and turns the journey entailed. We also asked the authors to think what kind of advice they would like to give now to themselves when they were just starting their thesis work. The result is this collection of Process Summaries and related official Thesis Abstracts. Together, the summaries indicate that completing a Doctoral Thesis is not just one process, but several processes brought together — often along a long and winding road with unforeseen uphills and downhills. Despite this, the Thesis itself describes mainly its scientific contribution, and the related learning and collaborative processes are usually referred to only in a concise and declaratory manner. While this is understandable, it also partly misses the point: as the Process Summaries remind us, the Doctoral Thesis is very much about the diverse ways of “getting there”. By making visible these diverse journeys we feel that this book makes three important contributions. First, the Process Summaries remind us about the importance of collaboration, collegial support, and peer learning — a recurring theme throughout this book. Second, the summaries show very clearly that there is no one “correct” way of carrying out doctoral research, but each path is unique. Thirdly, we hope that the stories documented in this book provide insights and even inspiration for those currently planning or being on the journey of getting there. In that journey, the authors’ encourage us to be active, curious, and brave, to explore and enjoy and, ultimately, to trust in the process and trust in yourself. This book includes a selection of Doctoral Theses that have been completed in the field of water and environmental engineering at Aalto University and its predecessor Helsinki University of Technology from year 2002 until 2022. This, way, the book also celebrates the 20th Anniversary of our Water Building, located at Tietotie 1E in Otaniemi. Thank you to all the contributors! Marko, Maija and Heidi
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    Vihreän rakentamisen kasvupotentiaali Uudellamaalla - UrWood-Loppuraportti
    (Aalto University, 2022) Talvitie, Ilmari; Amiri, Ali; Junnila, Seppo; Rakennetun ympäristön laitos; Department of Built Environment; Insinööritieteiden korkeakoulu; School of Engineering
    UKKE052 UrWood -tutkimushankkeessa selvitetään puurakentamisen hiilineutraaliuspotentiaali Uudellamaalla sitomalla puun hiilivarannot ja päästövähennykset maankäytön (MAL) tavoitteisiin. Hanke tuottaa uskottavia matalahiili- ja hiilineutraalisuusskenaarioita tulevaisuuden rakentamisesta Uudellamaalla. Arviot perustuvat nyt vallitsevaan rakennustapaan (BAU) sekä erilaisiin puurakentamisen skenaarioihin. Skenaariot kattavat MAL:n sopimuksellisesti keskeiset tavoitteet ja niihin sidotut tavoitevuodet 2031 (MAL), 2035 (Suomen hiilineutraalisuustavoite) ja 2050 (EU hiilineutraalisuustavoite). Hanketta rahoitti Uudenmaan liitto sekä Maa- ja metsätalousministeriö. Hankkeen viestinnässä käytettiin hankkeelle nimeä LANKKU– Laajamittaisen puun käytön hiilineutraaliushyödyt ja kannattavuus rakentamisessa ja kaavoituksessa. Hankkeessa huomioidaan rakentamisen päästöt, puurakennusten hiilivarastot ja hiilikompensaatiot hiilineutraalisuustavoitteihin pyrittäessä. Tutkimus perustuu olemassaoleviin maakäytön tavoitteisiin ja kasvuskenaarioihin uudisrakentamisen määristä Uudellamaalla (Uudenmaan liitto, 2018). Työ hyödyntää aikaisemmin tehtyjä päästömalleja erilaisten puurakennusten ja muiden tämänhetkisten rakennustapojen vertailuissa. Hankkeen keskeisimmät tuotokset ovat eri rakentamisskenaariot ja niiden perusteella annettavat suositukset/arviot puurakentamisen hiilineutraalisuuspotentiaalista Uudellamaalla.Tulokset osoittavat, että puurakentamisella voidaan vähentää uudisrakentamisen ilmastokuormaa sekä kasvattaa merkittävästi kaupunkiympäristöjen hiilivarastoa Uudellamaalla. Puurakentamista lisäämällä voidaan vähentää asuinrakentamisen hiilipäästöjä arviolta noin 0,79–1,35 Mt CO2e. Samaan aikaan rakennetun ympäristön hiilivarasto kasvaisi Uudellamaalla arviolta 0,51–0,80 miljoonaa tonnia, joka vastaa kompensaationa noin 1,88–2,95 Mt CO2e ilmastopäästöjä. Hankkeessa esitetyt arviot uudisrakentamisen päästövähennyksistä pelkästään puurakentamista hyödyntämällä eivät vielä yksistään ole riittäviä saavuttamaan teollisuuden ja kaupunkien asettamaa hiilineutraalisuustavoitetta.Tämän lisäksi tarvitaan merkittäviä muiden rakennusmateriaalien päästövähennyksiä sekä laajamittaisen puurakentamisen hiilikompensaation eli hiilivarastojen kasvattamisen hyödyntämistä. Puurakentamisen lisäksi hanke tutkii matalan ja tiiviin kaupungin konseptia, jolla voitaisiin tukea puurakentamisen nopeaa kasvua ja uudisrakentamisesta aiheutuvan hiilipiikin hillintää. Konseptissa matalalla ja tiiviillä rakentamisella pystytään tuottamaan tiivistä kaupunkirakennetta, mutta samalla tukemaan puurakentamisteknologioiden kilpailukykyä nykyisellä teollisuusrakenteella. Lopuksi UrWood-hankkeessa esitellään myös uusi hiilikompensaatiokonsepti, jossa kaavoitetulle uudisrakennusalueelle sijoitettaisiin systemaattisesti tarpeeksi tiiviisti puurakennuksia niin, että niihin kertyvä hiilivarasto kompensoisi eli pystyisi hyvittämään menetetyn metsämaan hiilivaraston.
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    Identification and analysis of educational needs for naval architects and marine engineers in relation to the foreseen context of Maritime Autonomous Surface Ships (MASS)
    (Aalto University, 2022) Bolbot, Victor; Methlouthi, Oussama; Chaal, Meriam; Valdez, Osiris; BahooToroody, Ahmad; Tsetkova, Anastasia; Hellström, Magnus; Saarni, Jouni; Virtanen, Seppo; Owen, Douglas; Lei, Du; Basnet, Sunil; Konetekniikan laitos; Department of Mechanical Engineering; AutoMare EduNeed; Insinööritieteiden korkeakoulu; School of Engineering
    We are enduring the introduction of rapid digitalization, smart technologies, and digital connectivity in all industrial domains including maritime under the scope of the industry 4.0 revolution. At the same time, a plethora of challenges need to be faced during this digital transition in the maritime cluster targeting the maritime autonomous surface ships (MASS). Therefore, this report aims at a holistic analysis and identification of the educational needs and competencies required in the maritime domain by the naval architects and marine engineers in relation to MASS and at deriving recommendations for the study program in relation to MASS at Finnish Universities (Aalto University, Abo Akademi University and the University of Turku). To identify current and future education needs, first, the technologies that are/can be employed on MASS have been specified. Then the impact of MASS on the various maritime organisations and job skills has been identified. The study programs offered at other universities in Finland and internationally in relation to MASS have been additionally analysed. Based on the analysis results, recommendations for the study program have been derived. Agile framework to keep Finnish university programs corresponding with the maritime industry needs was also proposed. The analysis results have demonstrated that an increased number of systems employing information and communication technologies will be employed on MASS. The new systems development will increase the demand for maritime professionals who are proficient both in the realm of maritime and computer engineering. Some occupations will remain largely unaffected such as hydrodynamic and structural experts, whilst some others will be slightly altered, such as the jobs of ship designer. Several jobs will be burdened with additional required skill sets, such as the jobs of ship managers. New job types such as remote pilots and surveyors, and maritime cybersecurity experts will also emerge. Universities in Finland and globally have responded to the new demands by either updating their study programs or by providing dedicated master's programs, alone or in cooperation with other universities. They have included courses on advanced robotics or artificial intelligence in their study curriculum along with many others.The investigated universities (Aalto University, Abo Akademi University and the University of Turku) offered courses already include MASS as part of their course's material. However, this material needs to be enhanced by including more aspects in relation to the systems being installed on MASS, digital twins, design challenges associated with MASS, and machine learning techniques used in maritime and maritime cybersecurity.To keep up with the developments in the maritime, it is recommended to organise small biannual workshops in cooperation with industry which can be used to update the study curriculum.
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    Best practices for online learning: experiences from the WAT Master's programme
    (Aalto University, 2021) Heikonen, Sara; Rakennetun ympäristön laitos; Department of Built Environment; Insinööritieteiden korkeakoulu; School of Engineering
    Learning and evaluation in WAT programme have a strong emphasis in groupwork, peer learning and interaction between students and teachers. To continue meeting the learning goals of the master’s programme courses while supporting the well-being of students, it was important to maintain the interactive teaching methods in the rapid transition to online learning in 2020-21 (due to COVID-19 pandemic). The best practices for online learning presented below are based on observations and experiences from ten WAT courses in spring 2021, and collected through course assistant’s work in the courses, student feedback and discussions with teachers.
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    Defining concrete compressive strength by combining the results of different NDT methods
    (Aalto University, 2021) Al-Neshawy, Fahim; Ahmed, Hassan; Rakennustekniikan laitos; Department of Civil Engineering; Concrete Technology; Insinööritieteiden korkeakoulu; School of Engineering
    Compressive strength is an essential characteristic of reinforced concrete structures. Standards and codes of practice give rules for the assessment of the structural compressive strength of hardened concrete in situ, which are to be compared with the strength class used in design.  In this report, Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) methods were used to map the compressive strength variations of the concrete mock-up wall. A combination of Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV) and Rebound (Schmidt) Hammer were used to estimate the in-situ compressive strength of concrete. Compressive strength estimation models were generated using NDT methods with a minimal number of drilled concrete cores in order to calibrate the NDT methods. Reliability of the estimated compressive strength values was a challenge when assessing the in-situ strength of the mock-up wall. The factors affecting the compressive strength estimation models include the number of test location for cores used to identify the model, quality of measurements, the type of NDT technique, the use of single or combined NDT techniques, and the model identification approach. This report presents the on-site evaluation of concrete strength using combined NDT techniques. The investigation was carried out on a thick-walled reinforced concrete mock-up wall. The test results show some variation in the compressive strength when applying the combined NDT techniques. The prediction of compressive strength carried out shows how the use of known destructive methodologies associated with a combined non-destructive method improves the accuracy of the estimation of the concrete compressive strength if the NDT methods are calibrated using enough test samples.
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    Report on round robin NDE testing for concrete cover measurements
    (Aalto University, 2021) Al-Neshawy, Fahim; Chen, Yanjuan; Ranta, Ilmari; Wöstmann, Jens; Rakennustekniikan laitos; Department of Civil Engineering; Insinööritieteiden korkeakoulu; School of Engineering
    Concrete cover for reinforcement is required to protect the rebar against corrosion and to provide resistance against fire. The methods for measuring cover thickness are based on many equipment and techniques, whose performances are related to their basic principle, and which give access to the following information: cover (thickness, accuracy), reinforcement diameter, presence of adjacent reinforcements and recognition of the steel profile. Different NDT methods are available for different applications. Each NDT methods has its pros and cons. In selecting an effective test method, special attention should be given to the limitations of the method for field investigation. In this report, we will present two techniques that are used in a variety of engineering projects. These techniques are magnetic methods using concrete cover meter and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). This report includes two parts which summarizes the round robin non-destructive testing and evaluation (NDE) for concrete cover depth measurements. In the first part, we present a literature review about the importance of having an adequate concrete cover depth, the requirements for the concrete cover depth and state-of-the-art cover depth measurement devices. In the second part, we present an international Round Robin test program with the purpose of testing the electromagnetic and GPR based methods on the thick-walled concrete mock-up. The report presents also results from the Round Robin measurements.
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    Julkisten rakennusten ilmanvaihdon käyttöaikojen vaikutus työolosuhteisiin ja sisäilman laatuun - Työsuojelurahaston hanke 180094
    (Aalto University, 2021) Lestinen, Sami; Kilpeläinen, Simo; Kosonen, Risto; Konetekniikan laitos; Department of Mechanical Engineering; Energiatehokkuus ja energiajärjestelmät; Insinööritieteiden korkeakoulu; School of Engineering
    The public sector employs about 30% of the total employment. In addition, the building users include just under a million children and students. Therefore, a good indoor climate and the proper use of ventilation systems are important. Night ventilation is used to improve indoor air quality in public buildings before the premises are used. A typical use has been to turn off the ventilation after using the facilities and restart it about 2 hours before reusing those facilities. Another option is to keep night ventilation running at minimum ventilation. The third option is to use night ventilation intermittently. Nowadays it is common to keep ventilation units running continuously to ensure good indoor air quality in all situations, even if it significantly increases the energy consumption of ventilation. The goal of this research project of the Finnish Work Environment Fund during 2019-2021 was to find out how night-time ventilation in public buildings should be used wisely so that good indoor climate conditions can be maintained, and unnecessary energy consumption can be avoided. The study measured the effects of night-time ventilation on indoor air quality and thermal conditions in 11 public buildings with no previously reported indoor air problems. In addition, the potential for microbial growth in the ventilation duct was examined in the laboratory. The study compared a stopped, continuous, and intermittent night ventilation strategy. Daytime ventilation was used normally in all cases. Each test case lasted for 2 weeks. Indoor air quality was assessed by measuring TVOC, carbon dioxide, and microbial concentrations. The pressure differences were measured over the external wall of the building and the ventilation operation was monitored by measuring the pressure difference of the devices. The results show that the average TVOC concentrations in the mornings were at the same level in all ventilation strategies. TVOC concentrations were higher during the day than at night. This indicates that the use of the facilities had the greatest effect on the TVOC concentrations. In the samples of settled dust, the microbial concentration was usually only a few percent of the corresponding outdoor air concentration. The used strategy of night ventilation did not have a systematic effect on indoor microbial concentrations. It has been hypothesized that the contaminants in ventilation ductwork can flow into the room when the ventilation unit is started. However, in the ventilation start-up test, the particulate matter levels were not increased in the supply air. In the laboratory test, no mold growth occurred in humid conditions during a 3-month measurement. The throw distance of a supply air terminal unit is usually poor at a low ventilation rate, and therefore, if the low airflow is used at night, the supply air temperature should be lower than the indoor air temperature because it mixes into space more efficiently than the isothermal supply air. In general, the natural variation of the measured physical quantities was greater during the test periods than could be observed with different night ventilation operating strategies. The working conditions at the measured buildings were at normal levels. The results show that 2 hours of ventilation before the premises are used is sufficient, and therefore, continuous ventilation at night is not necessary.
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    Factors for compactibility and risk of segregation for concrete - Report for contract research project "Compact Air"
    (Aalto University, 2021) Ojala, Teemu; Ahmed, Hassan; Vehmas, Tapio; Chen, Yanjuan; Tauqir, Ammad; Oey, Tandre; Al-Neshawy, Fahim; Leivo, Markku; Punkki, Jouni; Rakennustekniikan laitos; Department of Civil Engineering; Concrete Technology; Insinööritieteiden korkeakoulu; School of Engineering
    Compaction of concrete allows the concrete to reach its full potential quality. Compaction is a two-stage process where the vibrations effect first fills the mould due to the liquefaction, and second, the vibrations repulse the entrapped air from the concrete. The purpose of the Compact Air project was to determine possibilities to reduce the amount of compaction pores and reduce the risk of segregation. Firstly, the samples from the project "Good Vibrations" were analysed using combination of capillary suction, pressure saturation, and digital image analysis methods. These three methods were also applied on normal production concrete structures, from which drilled cores where vertically extracted. Secondly, test structures were cast to examine where the compaction pores are created and how the reinforcement as well as the compaction power affect the compaction pores. Finally, a rheological model for concrete under vibration was created to further understand the factors affecting the compaction process. The experiments did not reveal any single factor to improve the compactibility nor reduce the risk of segregation. However, the results demonstrated well that the workability and compactibility are not correlated phenomena. The casting of the test structures showed that even though the fluid concrete quickly filled the mould, the required compaction time remained in the same level when compared to the stiff concrete. According to the rheological modelling, the maximum density of concrete is a parameter that is controlled by the selection of compaction time, but it can also be increased by improving concrete properties. The visual estimation and modelling of the optimal vibration time suggest that the optimal vibration cannot remove all the entrapped air. Therefore, the compaction process is always a compromise between the degree of compaction and segregation. The effects of the superplasticisers during the compaction are complex even though the superplasticiser had minor impact on the rheological properties of the concrete. Since superplasticisers increase the slump value of concrete by decreasing the yield stress, their effect on viscosity is relatively small, and thus, have little influence on the compactibility. While the vibration mechanically breaks down the cement particle interactions, the plasticisers permanently reduce those interactions of the cement particle. Due to the permanent loss of interactions, plasticised concretes are more susceptible for segregation during vibration when compared to the non-plasticised concretes. Moreover, lower viscosity of the cement paste increases the velocity of compaction pores raising upwards, reducing the required time for entrapped air to exit the concrete. The best compaction quality can be achieved with a moderate workability concrete. Importantly, the height of compaction layers, the distance of compaction points, and the compaction times affect greatly the overall compaction quality. As such, the whole compaction process has a significant impact on the quality of concrete.
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    REAL2030: Loppuraportti
    (Aalto University, 2021) Laine, Jani; Puustinen, Tuulia; Talvitie, Ilmari; Junnila, Seppo; Rakennetun ympäristön laitos; Department of Built Environment; Insinööritieteiden korkeakoulu; School of Engineering
    Real2030 -tutkimushankkeessa selvitettiin kuntien hiilineutraalisuustiekarttojen ja kasvihuonekaasuraportointimenetelmien kattavuutta tuotanto- ja kulutusperusteisesti, hiilineutraaliustoimenpiteiden vaikuttavuutta, rakentamisen ja puurakentamisen merkitystä kunnan päästöissä ja hiilikädenjäljessä sekä niiden roolia hiilineutraalissa kasvavassa kaupungissa. Lisäksi hankkeessa tunnistettiin nykyisin käytössä olevat maankäyttöpolitiikan keinot sekä niihin liittyvät kehitystarpeeet kuntien hiilineutraalisuustoiminnassa. Tutkimuksen päärahoittaja on Uudenmaan liitto. Rahoitukseen osallistui myös tutkimuksen kohteena olevat Suomen kuusi suurinta suomalaista kaupunkia, Helsinki, Espoo, Vantaa, Tampere, Turku sekä Oulu. Hankkeen keskeiset tulokset ja johtopäätökset on koottu seuraavien alaotsikoiden alle: Hiilineutraalisuus kaupungeissa ja rakentamisessa 1. Hiilineutraaliustoimenpiteissä sekä päästöraportoinnissa havaittiin epäyhdenmukaisuuksia, jotka vaikeuttavat tehtyjen hiilineutraaliustoimenpiteiden vaikuttavuuden arviointia ja vertailua. Maankäyttöpoliittisten toimenpiteiden hiilijalanjälkivaikutusten arviointi laskemalla sekä vertailun kehittäminen nähtiin tärkeäksi. 2. Kunnan panostukset kaukolämmön lisäksi sähköntuotantoon nähtiin erityisen merkittävänä ja kustannustehokkaan päästövähentämisen keinona. Sähköntuotanto voi sijaita kunnan rajojen sisä- tai ulkopuolella. Molemmat energiantuotannon muodot olisi syytä ottaa mukaan päästöraportointiin sekä -mittarointiin. 3. Puurakentaminen tunnistettiin merkittäväksi päästövähennystoimenpiteeksi uudisrakentamisessa. Puurakentamisen laajamittainen hyödyntäminen hiilineutraalisuustoimenpiteenä vaatii puukerrostalorakentamiselta kustannustehokkuutta tai suhteellisesti korkeampia myyntihintoja, joita jo havaittiinkin pääkaupunkiseudulla. 4. Päästörajoitusten ja -kannusteiden käyttö nähtiin hyödyllisenä esimerkiksi integroituna rakennuslupakäsittelyn osaksi, kuten nykyinen lainsäädäntövalmistelu ehdotetaankin. Rakentamisen hiilikompensaation hyödyntäminen ja taloudellinen kannustaminen esimerkiksi alentamalla rakennuslupakustannuksia tai kiinteistöveroa havaittiin haastatteluissa tarjoavan mekanismeja matalahiilirakentamisen edistämiseksi. Maankäyttöpolitiikka hiilineutraalisuustoimenpiteissä 1. Eri maankäyttöpoliittisten toimenpiteiden hiilijalanjäljen laskemisen ja vertailun kehittäminen on olennaista. Lisäksi tarvitaan myös kokonaisvaltaisempaa lähestymistapaa eli ns. systeemiajattelua liittyen maankäyttöpoliittisten toimenpiteiden vaikuttavuuden ja niiden keskinäisten suhteiden ymmärtämiseen 2. Maankäyttöpoliittisten instrumenttien käyttöpotentiaali ilmastonmuutoksen hillitsemisen näkökulmasta on huomattavasti nykyistä suurempi, esimerkiksi onnistuneiden pilottihankkeiden tulosten skaalaamisessa 3. Muista kehittämistarpeista esille nousivat muutosjoustavuuden parempi huomioiminen suunnittelussa ja rakennuksissa, taloudellisten kannustimien käytön vahvistaminen erityisesti olemassa olevan rakennuskannan energiaremonttien suhteen sekä tarve täsmentää energian tuotannon ja kulutuksen roolia maankäyttöpolitiikassa.
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    Aalto-yliopiston Vesi- ja ympäristötekniikan maisteriohjelman sidosryhmäselvitys 2019-2020 : yhteenvetoraportti: Alan tulevaisuus, osaamistarpeet ja vastavalmistuneiden rooli
    (Aalto University, 2020) Renko, Julia; Kaikko, Anni; Karvinen, Meeri; Keskinen, Marko; Rakennetun ympäristön laitos; Department of Built Environment; Insinööritieteiden korkeakoulu; School of Engineering
    This stakeholder survey was carried out to gain a comprehensive picture on the competence and development needs of water and environmental engineering field in Finland. The survey was targeted to the stakeholders of the Master’s Programme in Water and Environmental Engineering (WAT) of Aalto University. Therefore, this report discusses specifically the development of WAT programme and its education, focusing on the competence needs of its graduates. The data was collected through interviews and questionnaires from employers, financiers and experts of the field. Complementary data was gathered from the workshops of WAT stakeholder event, “Water Expo”, in February 2020. The focus was in four specific themes: the future of the field, graduates in working life, stake-holder collaboration and the role of sustainable development in the field. According to the results, the future of the field looks bright. Most of the respondents thought that the field’s societal importance will increase in the future, which results in an increasingly good employment situation. The role of water and environmental engineers is significant in solving sustainability challenges, both locally and globally. Therefore, many respondents considered that the export potential of Finnish water knowhow should be developed. Climate change, environmental changes, digitalisation and urbanisation were recognized as the major driving forces affecting the field creating both, challenges and possibilities. These phenomena have already forced changes, including automatisation, more efficient flood protection, increased use of nature-based solutions in hydraulic engineering and increasing consideration of circular economy in the field. In water supply and sewerage, end-of-life infrastructure and lack of competent experts are a national challenge, specifically in smaller municipalities. The results concerning future competences strongly support the current emphasis of WAT Programme: the field seems to require holistic comprehension and understanding of complex cause-consequence relationships, without forgetting strong technical capabilities and substance knowledge. Also skills relating to sustainability were highlighted in the responses, specifically multidisciplinary and -cultural understanding, communication skills and holistic thinking. The competence needs in the future seem to comprise of a combination of multiple skills, increasing the importance of students’ supervision and the building of their professional identity during their master’s studies. In the interviews, practical implementation of sustainability -related knowledge was highlighted as one of the most important skills in the field. According to the survey, graduates have already succeeded in bringing sustainable values to working life and making practical suggestions in organisations on how to implement sustainable solutions. Although the current level of sustainability knowhow in organisations was evaluated quite high, almost all respondents reported they would need even stronger knowhow in this area. The respondents representing water supply and sewerage considered sustainability as a general quality management issue and emphasized technical and economical competences, whereas representatives of water resources management and environmental engineering considered the ability for holistic thinking as central. The respondents considered the field scattered and thought projects are often overlapping and lacking coordination. Joint vision was called for, as well as structures enabling more efficient collaboration between teaching, research and practical projects. In university-working life collaboration, key challenges brought up were the dependency of co-operation on individual actors and the lack of several resources, such as time and finances. Master’s and doctoral thesis and student projects were identified as successful forms of collaboration, but respondents wished for even more collaborative efforts. The key conclusions of this stakeholder survey are: 1) the need for closer collaboration and a vision for the field; 2) tighter relationships between education and working life; 3) sustainable development is important for the field and graduates have a significant role in implementing it and 4) WAT Master’s Programme has a right direction with providing a T-shaped learning profile: a strong technical and substance knowledge together with holistic understanding of the contexts. In order to create solutions to the complex climate and environmental challenges, it is of utmost importance to educate technically capable water and environmental engineers who are able to work in a multidisciplinary environment and apply the principles of sustainable development in practice.