[article-cris] Taiteiden ja suunnittelun korkeakoulu / ARTS

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    Kaupunkiluonnon aistiympäristö suunnittelukysymyksenä
    (Suomalaisen kirjallisuuden seura, 2023-09-15) Veijola, Soile; Lähde, Elisa; Jokimäki, Jukka; Kaisanlahti-Jokimäki, Marja-Liisa; University of Lapland; Arkkitehtuurin laitos; Veijola, Soile
    Kaupunkipuistojen avulla on mahdollista tutkia sekä ekologisen että esteettisen monimuotoisuuden hyvinvointivaikutuksia. Monilajisina aistiympäristöinä viheralueet vaikuttavat monin eri tavoin niin ihmisten kuin muidenkin eliölajien elinympäristöihin. Näihin kohdistuu kuitenkin monenlaista arvottamista ja hyödyntämispainetta. Kaupunkirakennetta tiivistetään edelleen ottamalla lisärakentamiselle tilaa viheralueista, vaikka kaupunkiluonnossa oleminen ja liikkuminen edistävät ihmisten psykofyysistä hyvinvointia niin ekologisen kuin esteettisenkin monimuotoisuuden kautta. Viheralueet tarjoavat myös elinympäristön monille muille lajeille, esimerkiksi linnuille. Eri tiedealueilla tehty tutkimus öisen keinovalon, melun ja tunnelman vaikutuksista ihmisten hyvinvointiin ja muiden eliölajien elinmahdollisuuksiin kertoo viheralueiden tärkeydestä. Luvussa tarjotaan ajatusta ekosysteemipalveluista kokonaisvaltaiseksi näkökulmaksi vastuulliselle suunnittelulle matkailussa. Viheralueiden monimuotoisuuden säilyttämiseen löytyy useita keinoja, joilla ehkäistä ihmiskeskeiseksi kapeutuneen suunnittelun aiheuttamia terveyshaittoja kaikkien eliölajien, myös ihmisen, eduksi. Vastuulliseen suunnitteluun tarvitaan lisää mittareita, seurantaa sekä hyvinvoinnin ja tavoitteiden indikaattoreiden uudelleenmäärittelyä.
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    The art of structural relation: Kazuo Shinohara’s “strong structures” design thinking
    (Architectural Institute of Japan, 2023-03-05) Wang, Shuaizhong; Kotnik, Toni; Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich; Department of Architecture; Department of Architecture
    With increased interest in materials and construction in the architectural field, the use of building structure as the element of architectural expression has gained interest in recent years. In his analysis of contemporary Swiss architecture, Arthur Rüegg has coined the notion of “Strong Structures” for the tendency to activate a load-bearing structure for spatial and conceptual expression. The article applies this notion to the works of renowned Japanese architect Kazuo Shinohara, who has influenced many prominent Swiss figures in the debate over “Strong Structures.” By conducting phenomenological research on his experimental practices in House in White, Tanikawa House, and House in Uehara, the article examines how Shinohara used the organisation of structural elements and relations to express the architectural and cultural context. Finally, by contrasting the structural design methods used in Switzerland and Japan, this article aims to introduce a relational structure design mindset in order to complement and extend the concept of “Strong Structures”, which can enrich structural design by focusing on the art of structural relations.
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    Before Repairing : Pausing and Knotting Discomfort
    (Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 2023-10-22) Pérez-Bustos, Tania; Botero, Andrea; Universidad Nacional de Colombia; Department of Design; Department of Design
    In this work, we reflect on a speculative pedagogical exercise in which we recorded, and invited others to record, through and with knots, situations of our daily lives related to forms of containment and entrapment. Accompanying this creative and collaborative work allowed us to materialize situations of vulnerability and unease (as knots), as well as the difficulty of registering these discomforts (through knots). We are interested in presenting this exercise as an embodied design practice. We also want to highlight how the staging of vulnerability and unease―made through material practices― generates contemplative pauses that have the power to make the fragility of life visible, and thus anticipate the need for repair. We argue here that repair, as a practice linked to design, is a making that deserves to be propitiated by contemplation and catharsis, in the face of damage and fragility in capitalist contexts.
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    Design probes applied as fashion design probes
    (2023) Valle Noronha, Julia; Niinimäki, Kirsi; Department of Design; Department of Design; Fletcher, Kate; Grimstad Klepp, Ingun
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    Enacting Everyday Environmental Citizenship: Youthful Interpretations of Belonging and Empowerment
    (Brill, 2023-11-06) Firinci Orman, Turkan; Department of Design; Department of Design
    This article argues that young people’s critical agency related to consumerism and climate change, whether individually or collectively performed, is derived from lived experiences through which young people perform their interpretive agency. Building on the performative understanding of citizenship and digital ethnographic data on early youth with diverse social positioning from different regions, I intend to show how young people in Turkey, where the authoritarian regime restrains their civic engagements immensely, practice their interpretive agency and create youthful ways to enact their environmental subjectivities. I further analyze the intersubjective, spatial and, affective character of everyday environmental practices of young people in Turkey, reflecting their ways of belonging and empowerment that translate into shared (youthful) environmental values.
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    Computational analyses of dynamics of architectural space
    (Aalto University School of Arts, Design and Architecture, Tampere University of Technology, School of Architecture, Oulu School of Architecture, Oulu University, Finnish Association of Architects = Suomen arkkitehtiliitto SAFA, 2023-05-29) Han, Yoon J.; Kotnik, Toni; Department of Architecture
    Although space is the central element of architecture, questions of space are hardly addressed in computational research in architecture. On the other hand, current mainstream practice in computational design research in architecture tends to focus on efficiency of architectural procedures, entailing optimisation of form, structure, performance, data management or workflow, etc. Such focus utilises computation to handle quantitative data of tangible properties in architecture. However, architectural space is filled with abstract qualitative properties, one of which is its dynamics. Dynamic properties of architectural space have been discussed in diverse disciplines from diverse perspectives since the nineteenth century, but it is only in the past decades that some of the theories are revisited due to discoveries in neuroscience. Such reappraisal of past theories by new technologies anticipates further rediscovery of qualitative properties of architectural space, such as spatial dynamics, that have been investigated largely through speculative descriptive methods using phenomenological approaches. Hence, the research explores the idea of architectural space as dynamic field structures by reexamining theories since the nineteenth century in multiple disciplines, and develops a system of computational inquiries to investigate dynamics of architectural space. The computational procedures produce visual spatial data that are analysed and calibrated in comparison to the past studies of architectural space based on descriptive methods. The correlations observed between the two approaches substantiate potentials of the computational approach as ways to study abstract properties of architectural space further.
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    New Fashion Ethics: Who Has Justice and Value in Fashion?
    (2023-10-13) Niinimäki, Kirsi; Department of Design; Department of Design; Almila, Anna-Mari; Delice, Serkan
    Fashion has considerable environmental impacts and social justice problems. This chapter discusses fashion in the context of sustainability from three different viewpoints: social, environmental and economic, i.e., from the viewpoints of people, the planet and profit. Previous ethical discussions have focused on the social aspect, from the viewpoint of working conditions in the textile and fashion field (labour rights) and later, on the environmental impacts in this industrial field. It is time to expand the discussion in order to understand the ethical side of fashion from the aspects of value, justice and responsibility.
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    The Ecological Underpinnings and Future Contributions of (E)CSCW
    (European Society for Socially Embedded Technologies (EUSSET), 2023) Light, Ann; Rossitto, Chiara; Lampinen, Airi; Botero, Andrea; University of Sussex; Stockholm University; Department of Design; Department of Design
    When times change rapidly, the transformations around us ask us to consider whether our practices of research and scholarship are keeping abreast. Multiple crises are bearing down on us and only a change in Global North lifestyles and values will begin to address the world’s course towards major catastrophe. In this highly interactive panel, we unravel the ecological underpinnings of (E)CSCW to understand how it could contribute more fully to different sustainabilities and alternative futures. We consider (E)CSCW to offer a strength in its practice-oriented roots and its ecological understanding of socio-technical relations. We revisit these qualities in light of the need to embrace interdependence in all aspects of life and invite others to think with us about possible futures and the contributions (E)CSCW scholarship is poised to make in working toward them.
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    Nordic approaches to housing and ageing : Current concepts and future needs
    (TU Delft Open, 2023-07-28) Verma, Ira; Høyland, Karin; Lindahl, Lisbeth; Department of Architecture; SINTEF
    The Nordic countries have a reputation for having both universal welfare systems and high housing standards. However, the demographic development and ageing in place policies bring challenges to the present housing and care services for the older population. During the last decades, there has been a significant decrease in the coverage of care for older people. This is related to the increase of older people as well as challenges related to the availability of the workforce and raising care costs. This development is leading to increasing demand for various supportive housing solutions for seniors and older people. The objective of this paper is to provide a comparative overview of existing housing solutions for seniors and older people in Nordic countries. The objective of the comparative descriptive analyses is to point out the challenges and future possibilities for housing. This is illustrated by some new cases all of them showing solutions that enable older people to continue being a part of city life intheir own neighbourhoods. They also show a variety of solutions that at the same time gives possibilities to live independently and live interdependent in different kind of co-housing and neighbourhoods. This paper highlights the need for a more systematic evaluation of housing solutions for older people across the Nordic countries, to be able to learn from each other and to be able to manage the impacts of the ageing society for the welfare system.
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    Computational Design Methods for Enhancing Urban Biodiversity : The flight of the bumblebee: Improving urban green for ecosystem service
    (eCAADe, 2023) Qiu, Yanxia; Fricker, Prof. Dr. Pia; Department of Architecture; Department of Architecture; Dokonal, Wolfgang; Hirschberg, Urs; Wurzer, Gabriel
    Next to the effects imposed by Climate Change, rapid urbanization is seen as one of the major threats to biodiversity, including pollinator biodiversity and ecosystem services. Knight et al. (2018) argued that the investigation of the impacts of urbanisation on ecosystem services is hindered by the limited studies focusing on pollination ecology. The urban ecosystem is complex, as manmade elements are intertwined with natural elements (Lepczyk et al., 2017). Limited urban planning guidance related to ecosystem services exists due to an inadequate understanding of the interactions between complex systems and bumblebees. Given the importance of pollination services to urban biodiversity, it is essential to integrate ecosystem service consideration into urban planning for a healthy and sustainable city. This research explores the impacts of the urban built environment on the movement of bumblebees concerning green connectivity. The study develops an agent-based modelling framework to improve urban ecosystem services, with pollination service as a specific example of one ecosystem service in the city. The data-driven framework serves as an urban planning tool to investigate the interaction between ecological research and urban planning (Fricker et al. , 2020). Helsinki serves as a case study city to exemplify the application of the design framework, offering guidance in assessing urban pollination services and presenting a design toolkit for enhancing these services.
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    Accelerating transition toward district heating-system decarbonization by policy co-design with key investors : opportunities and challenges
    (National Biological Information Infrastructure, 2023-10-04) Auvinen, Karoliina; Meriläinen, Teemu; Saikku, Laura; Hyysalo, Sampsa; Juntunen, Jouni K.; Department of Design; Finnish Environment Institute; University of Vaasa; Department of Design
    District heating in European, Chinese, and Russian cities is still mainly produced with fossil fuels. Energy-system reconfiguration is essential to achieve full decarbonization, which calls for a greater understanding of how to engage key investors in market transformation and how to formulate effective policy mixes. This article reports on how decarbonization could be accelerated in district-heating systems in Finland with stakeholder orientation especially on key investors consisting of companies focused on district-heating, data-center management, real estate development, and sewage operations. The technological attention is on the excess and ambient heat systems. Drawing from surveys, interviews, and workshops we identified investment barriers and collected policy and strategy proposals to overcome them. The results demonstrate that diversifying and strengthening the policy and strategy mix is needed to overcome barriers related to profitability, political uncertainties, and underdeveloped cooperation andprofit-sharing models. Policy co-design with key investors holds potential to improve the effectiveness and acceptability of policies, but with certain limitations as regime actors tend to oppose the types of destabilization needed to achieve full decarbonization of energy systems. Thus, effective policy co-design processes need further development as collaboration is a success factor to achieve climate change-mitigation targets, but simultaneously tensions and conflicts cannot be avoided when accelerating energy-system transformation.
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    Determination and Evaluation of Landslide-Prone Regions of Isparta (Turkey): An Urban Planning View
    (MDPI AG, 2023-10) Keçik, Aynur Uluç; Çiftçi, Canan; Gülcen Eren, Şirin; Diş, Aslı Tepecik; Rizzo, Agatino; Süleyman Demirel University; KTH Royal Institute of Technology; Department of Architecture
    Landslides represent a significant hazard affecting human life and property and threaten the sustainability of human settlements. They are among the most critical threats after earthquakes in Turkey. In 2020, 107 landslide events occurred in Turkey. Implementing proper policies, strategies, and tools for landslide risk mitigation remains challenging for urban planning institutions. In the plan preparation phase, urban planners and plan-making authorities, agencies, or institutions may overlook landslide risks due to a lack of data or related studies. Therefore, this article aims to develop a novel spatial analysis for identifying landslide-prone areas at the provincial level from an urban planning perspective. The analysis is compared to the approved upper-scale plan, and the results are used to build a more robust understanding of landslide risks for sustainable urban development. Isparta Province is selected as the study area, as it has active landslide areas. The methods used include a literature survey including internet sources, newspapers, plans, articles, and other research projects and a case study utilizing a GIS spatial analysis. The spatial analysis using GIS is based on three landslide inventories currently available in Turkey. This spatial analysis is developed to determine landslide-prone regions by considering thematic layers, triggering factors, and vulnerability inputs. As a result of this analysis, five landslide-prone areas in Isparta Province are determined. When these regions are compared to the upper-scale plan that covers the province, it is found that land use and planning decisions have neglected landslide risks, and urban areas are at high landslide risk. Several specific principles and strategies, such as a spatial inventory database and an integrated planning approach including landslide-prone areas, are stated with a reliable spatial analysis to assess landslide-prone areas on a regional scale, which can be applied later in any city and region of Turkey.
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    How digital-only fashion brands are creating more participatory models of fashion co-design
    (Intellect, 2023-10) Huggard, Emily; Särmäkari, Natalia; The New School; Department of Design; Department of Design
    The norms and systems of the fashion industry tend to support a small class of brands and designers creating fashion while the public takes on the role of passive consumer. The rise of digital fashion and a new sector of ‘digital-only’ fashion brands now provides unique ways for consumers to interact with fashion online, from buying wearables for digital gaming avatars, to wearing a digital dress on social media, to investing in non-fungible tokens (NFTs) – digital assets based on blockchain technology, bought and sold online. Digital-only fashion brands are reimagining the hierarchical relationships between brand and consumer towards one of empowerment and mutual value via decentralized co-design platforms. Such endeavours allow brands to build community and challenge the ownership and authorship conventions in the fashion industry. Co-design has been widely used by fashion brands as a strategy that promotes involvement from the public/ consumer in creating customized and made-to-order products and experiences. Using established theories of participatory art, an approach to making art which engages the public and communities in the creative process, this article explores how digital-only fashion brands are creating more participatory models of fashion co-design. To confirm and further explore this theory and to consider how a participatory model is achieved in practice, a qualitative case study was conducted on The Fabricant Studio, a collaborative digital fashion atelier. The findings reveal new methods of co-design used by digital fashion brands that allow consumers to design and monetize their craft while retaining creators’ ownership. The application of the theory also underscores the importance of creative control and decision-making in the fashion co-design process to ensure it is truly participatory vs. interactive. The Fabricant’s methods to educate users through accessible platforms contribute to the diversification of co-designers and digital fashion designers in general.
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    Open Forest: Walking-with Feral Stories, Creatures, Data
    (European Society for Socially Embedded Technologies (EUSSET), 2023) Dolejšová, Markéta; Botero, Andrea; Choi, Jaz Hee jeong; Department of Design; RMIT University
    Open Forest is an experimental, practice-based inquiry into forests and forest data that facilitates imaginative co-creation of feral forest datasets. The project involves a series of experimental walks with various forests around the world, inviting participants to explore local ecologies and share their experiences in the form of forest stories. To enable sharing of such personally situated stories, we experiment with various speculative material practices and devices, including the online Feral Map – a collaborative dataset of more-than-human forest experiences and knowledge. Through the experimental forest walks and stories, we explore what can constitute a forest dataset, how it can be produced, and by whom to raise questions about power, values, and structural inequalities that shape forests and their futures. We propose that caring for the futures of forests must be collaborative work. Finding ways to do this labour requires imaginative articulations of technologies, practices and data, an agenda to which CSCW is well positioned to contribute.
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    Interconnected Agencies For Sustainable Futures : A Discourse on the Notion of Adaptation and Space
    (2023-10-10) Fricker, Prof. Dr. Pia; Landau-Donnelly, Friederike; Miltiadis, Constantinos; Singh, Shubhangi; Department of Architecture; Radboud University; Encore; Department of Design
    This article presents a nuanced discussion of four episodes on the complexity of possible trajectories for sustainable futures through diverse but intersecting practices and discourses as heterogeneous but complementary articulations of ‘adaptation and space.’ As design and creative processes evolve, new tools and methods, often adopted from science and technology, are integrated into art, design, and architecture. However, knowledge flow in these developments tends to be unidirectional, with science and technology influencing these fields more than vice versa. The diverse developments relating to the concept of ‘space’ have profound impacts on industries, urban habitats, design approaches, and the arts within the expanded field. This article engages in a conversation from four different disciplinary perspectives, each articulating its own voice in relation to the broad notion of ‘adaptation and space.’ Through this multidisciplinary dialogue, presented in four episodes, it critically contributes to theongoing discussion on sustainable futures, offering new trajectories for Problem-Based Learning (PBL) beyond disciplinary boundaries. In an era dominated by umbrella terminologies like sustainability, the field of higher education faces the challenge of integrating different expertise to foster new solutions for complex challenges. This article highlights the need for diverse fields such as architecture, art, and social science to engage in a dialogue about perception, interaction, and manipulation of space. Its purpose extends beyond the exploration of novel solutions, instead inviting multifarious perspectives that shape interconnected agencies for sustainable futures and their impact on education.
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    Building-GNN: Exploring a co-design framework for generating controllable 3D building prototypes by graph and recurrent neural networks
    (eCAADe, 2023) Zhong, Ximing; Koh, Immanuel; Fricker, Prof. Dr. Pia; School Common ARTS; Singapore University of Technology and Design; Department of Architecture; Department of Architecture; Dokonal, Wolfgang; Hirschberg, Urs; Wurzer, Gabriel
    This paper discusses a novel deep learning (DL)framework named Building-GNN, which combines the Graph Neural Network (GNN) and the Recurrent neural network (RNN) to address the challenge of generating a controllable 3D voxel building model. The aim is to enable architects and AI to jointly explore the shape and internal spatial planning of 3D building models, forming a co-design paradigm. While the 3D results of previous DL methods, such as 3DGAN, are challenging to control in detail and meet the constraints and preferences of architects' inputs, Building-GNN allows for reasoning about the complex constraint relationships between each voxel. In Building-GNN, the GNN simulates and learns the graph structure relationship between 3D voxels, and the RNN captures the complex interplaying constraint relationships between voxels. The training set consists of 4000 rule-based generated 3D voxel models labeled with different degrees of masking. The quality of the 3D results is evaluated using metrics such as IoU, Fid, and constraint satisfaction. The results demonstrate that adding RNN enhances the accuracy of 3D model shape and voxel relationship prediction. Building-GNN can perform multi-step rational reasoning to complete the 3D model layout planning in different scenarios based on the architect's precise control and incomplete input.
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    Sensing the Rhythm: Analysing human and non-human movement in a glassblowing process
    (Oslo Metropolitan University, 2023-09-20) Hulkkonen, Kati Sara Sanelma; Lötjönen, Miia; Mäkelä, Maarit; Empirica; Department of Design
    Glassblowing is a craft in which both human and material movement are essential. However, what kind of movement is required in glassblowing, and why does that movement happen? This article presents a practice-led case study conducted in a glassblowing studio. During a glassblowing session, clear drinking glass blanks are blown in a wooden turn mould. The process of glassblowing is documented on video and analysed using the visual data. Additionally, diary notes and participant observation are used to understand and contextualise video data more profoundly. The analysis focuses on the movement of the two main actants of the process: the human movement of the glassblower and the non-human movement of the hot glass. Altogether, six categories were identified to represent the human and material activity. This article concludes that the movement under investigation is relational between the glassblower and the hot glass, and it happens as a consequence of the glassblowers’ situated embodied knowledge. Furthermore,we discovered that research in the processes of glassblowing offers a rich ground for practice-led research that adopts relational ontology and sociomateriality as its theoretical perspectives. The purpose of this study is to fortify the craft of glassblowing as a vital practice in the fields of art, design, and craft.
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    Grounded circularity: the livelihoods of surplus clay
    (Routledge, 2023-08-31) Rumo, Delphine; Department of Design; Department of Design
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    Building within planetary boundaries: moving construction to stewardship
    (Ubiquity Press, 2023-08-02) Kuittinen, Matti; Department of Architecture
    The consumption of materials and energy for construction is a serious challenge to contain global warming below 2°C. Growing population, increasing per capita floor areas, more frequent extreme weather events and related repair needs, and rising sea levels are all accelerating the demand for construction and driving resource use. Rapid and drastic reductions in global carbon emissions and robust approaches to climate-related events are required urgently to remain within the planetary boundaries. Therefore, a new hierarchy for solving spatial needs is required: the Global North should avoid making new buildings, where and whenever possible. Instead, using existing spaces, renovating, adapting or extending the existing buildings would be much preferred. Such a hierarchy must be applied with context sensitivity. Especially the social needs of developing countries or communities recovering from humanitarian disasters should be adequately met, including the option of new construction. However, for most developed regions where populations are stable, new construction should require considerable justification. New design, business models and legislation are needed to successfully implement this approach. Environmental norms and architectural policies can offer a complementary set of approaches for reducing unsustainable consumption of resources in construction. Because of the historical responsibility as well as the current climate leadership, a fair transition should start from Europe. Key findings
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    From not yet knowing to achieving directionality: On the roles of materiality in multi-sited, interdisciplinary studio settings
    (Oslo Metropolitan University, 2023-09-20) Omwami, Anniliina; Vega, Luis; Mehto, Varpu; Falin, Priska; Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, Pirita; University of Helsinki; Department of Design
    This paper investigates the active role of materials in shaping ideation processes during interdisciplinary studio-based collaborations. Using ethnographic data collected from a graduate-level course conducted across multiple studio settings, we analysed how materiality facilitates interactions between students and studio instructors meeting for the first time when creative ideas are not yet fully formed and knowledge of unfamiliar materials is not yet embodied. The findings elucidate how certain materials are central to (1) demonstrating, (2) understanding, (3) sharing, (4) explaining, (5) generating and (6) challenging aspects related to ideation processes within such interactions. We conclude this work by emphasising the need for further research that focuses on material mediation in the context of student–instructor relationships.