[article-cris] Taiteiden ja suunnittelun korkeakoulu / ARTS

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    ”Clay to Play With”: Generative AI Tools in UX and Industrial Design Practice
    (2024-07-01) Uusitalo, Severi; Salovaara, Antti; Jokela, Tero; Salmimaa, Marja; Department of Design; Vallgårda, Anna; Jönsson, Li; Fritsch, Jonas; Fdili Alaoui, Sarah; Le Dantec, Christopher A.; Encore; Nokia Bell Labs Finland
    Generative artificial intelligence (GAI) is transforming numerous professions, not least various fields intimately relying on creativity, such as design. To explore GAI’s adoption and appropriation in design, an interview-based study probed 10 specialists in user experience and industrial design, with varying tenure and GAI experience, for their adoption/application of GAI tools, reasons for not using them, problems with ownership and agency, speculations about the future of creative work, and GAI tools’ roles in design sensemaking. Insight from reflexive thematic analysis revealed wide variation in attitudes toward GAI tools – from threat-oriented negative appraisals to identification of empowerment opportunities – which depended on the sense of agency and perceived control. The paper examines this finding in light of the Coping Model of User Adaptation and discusses designers’ metacognitive skills as possible underpinnings for their attitudes. Avenues for further research are identified accordingly.
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    Materiality in community energy innovation : A systematic literature review of hands-on material engagement in energy transition
    (Elsevier, 2024-08) Kuu-Park, Goeun; Kohtala, Cindy; Juntunen, Jouni K.; Hyysalo, Sampsa; Department of Design; Inuse; University of Vaasa; Umeå University
    Collective and citizen-driven activities for energy transition have been thriving globally in recent decades. Community energy innovation (CEI) developed through hands-on engagement with materials has garnered increasing attention from the interdisciplinary energy research community. The recent scholarly discussion has highlighted the role of materiality and its relation to collective agency, inclusion, and approaches to participation. Accordingly, paying attention to materiality in CEI can clarify sociotechnical aspects of energy innovation which have been commonly understood through either solely a social or technical view. Furthermore, fostering citizens' take-up of renewable energy in more democratic ways is a prerequisite for accelerating the energy transition and is arguably best done via material, hands-on engagement. However, the focus on materiality, particularly hands-on material engagement, in research on community energy appears to be fragmented. Therefore, we conducted a systematic literature review to better understand how researchers understand and approach materiality and material engagement in CEI. The results of analyzing 36 papers highlight that materiality in CEI has been studied in interdisciplinary fields through diverse methods, and we identify four types of networks in which such innovation emerges. We also identify geographically dispersed and Do-It-Yourself enthusiast-led energy innovations which go beyond the existing understanding of CEI. More importantly, a network may change over time and place because of the configurational material nature of decentralized small-scale renewable energy technologies. However, studying materially-engaged CEI needs further efforts to integrate empirical data more centrally with the existing knowledge base and concretely define how materiality plays out in collective energy innovation.
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    Hybridization and accumulation of space-heating systems in Finnish detached housing
    (Elsevier, 2024-07) Numminen, Sini; Silvikko de Villafranca, Marika; Hyysalo, Sampsa; Department of Design; Inuse; NODUS
    The uptake of renewable energy sources is intensifying in detached houses in the Nordic countries. Survey results (N = 4276) among a detached-house owner association members in Finland imply that the energy transition has progressed further than believed. In the sample, 89 % of households had two or more systems which suggests an accumulation and parallel use of heating systems instead of removing older energy technologies. The phenomenon concerns houses with electric heating, wood heating and air-source heat-pumps, and the owner-occupant sample is rather even across socio-demographic backgrounds. However, larger homes had a higher number of energy technologies, and hybrid arrangements were also adopted more by male respondents. Women, unemployed, and families with three members or more had higher odds for relying only on one energy technology or fuel. The results call for urgent updates in European energy statistics and classifications and the energy policy measures targeted at residential sector, both from energy justice and heating decarbonization perspectives. This is one of the rare studies focusing on hybridization of residential heating in Nordic countries.
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    The impacts of public space flagship projects on local communities : evidence from Atigh Square of Isfahan, Iran
    (Springer, 2024-06-03) Ghalani, Zohreh; Ranjbar, Ehsan; al-Ameen, Ali; Department of Architecture; Tarbiat Modares University; University of Malaya
    The examination of the comprehensive effects of flagship projects on adjacent neighborhoods remains inadequately explored, particularly within developing countries. This scholarly void is expanding despite limited research on public space flagship projects. The current study delves into a problematic case study: Atigh Square, located within the historical center of Isfahan, Iran. This site has undergone substantial efforts to transform into a pedestrian-oriented public space, aimed at recapturing its original configuration fro the eleventh century. The 5 criteria of identity, economy, social, physical, and tourism features and 22 indicators attributed to them were extracted from the theoretical literature. Mixed methods research was pursued, using seminal publications, quantitative data from a questionnaire, and qualitative analysis of interviews conducted with several experts. Furthermore, the integration and connectivity of the area before and after regeneration was compared using Depth map software package. The results of the analysis show that the impact of the project in social, identity-related, infrastructural, and economic sub-criteria was weak, but it achieved relative success in terms of planning and tourism indicators. Besides, the sanitation sub-class received the highest rank whereas facilities and public services had the lowest rank among the sub-classes. As with the subjective and objective quality of life, the project was not a great success. Overall, although the project has considerably enhanced the physical and visual conditions of the area, it has failed to solve the social and economic problems of the surrounding fabric. The findings significantly contribute to the existing body of global literature concerning the impacts of flagship projects on surrounding areas, as the research explores diverse facets of these effects. The results underscore the necessity for flagship projects to be meticulously planned, taking into account not only the specific circumstances and challenges of local communities but also their integration into the broader socio-economic dynamics of the entire city.
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    Resilience by Whom and for Whom? Empowering Local Communities for Community-led Resilience-building
    (2024-05-31) Rashidfarokhi, Anahita; Department of Architecture; Toivonen, Saija; Heinonen, Sirkka; Verma, Ira; Castaño-Rosa, Raúl; Wilkinson, Sara
    Resilience is a crucial component of crisis management at various societal levels. However, the definition, implementation, and evaluation of resilience are often determined by external stakeholders, rather than those who are directly impacted by crises. This chapter focuses on the importance of engaging local communities in the process of conceptualising and implementing resilience and identifying key factors that contribute to enhancing multi-stakeholder communication and collaboration. The chapter highlights the significance of local knowledge, experiences, and context in resilience-building, and discusses participatory approaches to facilitate meaningful community involvement in decision-making processes. The chapter also explores strategies for fostering trust and partnership between external (public and private sector) and local communities, as well as ways to bridge the gap between local resilience strategies and formal crisis management frameworks. Overall, this chapter emphasises the need to empower local communities for active engagement and participation in context-specific resilience-building efforts.
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    Crises and Wellbeing: The Potential of the Built Environment
    (2024-05-31) Verma, Ira; Department of Architecture; Toivonen, Saija; Heinonen, Sirkka; Verma, Ira; Castaño-Rosa, Raúl; Wilkinson, Sara
    Currently, many simultaneous changes affect people's daily lives in urban environments. The population is ageing, diversifying, and mental health problems are increasing (Dufva & Rekola 2023). Similarly, many crises related to individual wellbeing and feeling of safety have been occurring (pandemics, war, etc.). The changes in our living environment may happen gradually or suddenly. They have an impact on people at a personal level as well as on the whole community. Crises shape our cities and affect the use of the public urban environment as well as private homes. The unexpected crises: environmental and economic as well as those relating to our health and social environment have an impact on the social sustainability of communities and wellbeing of individuals. People and communities have different capacities to face and overcome crises and hazards. Resilience is connected to community building, reduced vulnerability, and increased preparedness for crises at home and in the urban environment. This chapter is an introduction to various hazards affecting the use of the urban built environment and their impact on people's everyday life focusing on vulnerable population groups.
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    Responding to Stress and Crisis : The Case of Social Resilience in Comprehensive Planning in Stockholm, Copenhagen and Helsinki
    (2024-05-31) Lilius, Johanna; Department of Architecture; Toivonen, Saija; Heinonen, Sirkka; Verma, Ira; Castaño-Rosa, Raúl; Wilkinson, Sara
    Resilience, according to Davoudi (2012), is one remedy for planners to deal with uncertainty. It is a term that has been translated from the field of ecology to the field of planning, and thus a number of studies show the limitations of translating the natural into the social world. The term resilience is not commonly used in strategic spatial planning in the Nordic countries but appears to be termed differently. Using planning documents as data, in this chapter we explore how the “slippery” concept of resilience is used in Nordic comprehensive planning. We ask which are the words in use, and what do they mean? Are there stated, desirable social resilient outcomes, and who benefits and is excluded by them?
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    Advancing Low-Emission Urban Design Through Parametric Modelling and Life Cycle Assessment
    (Wichmann Verlag, 2024) Hermansdorfer, Mariusz; Oettinger, Christian; Skov-Petersen, Hans; Fricker, Prof. Dr. Pia; Negendahl, Kristoffer; Department of Architecture; University of Copenhagen; Henning Larsen Architects; Technical University of Denmark
    This research paper presents the development and application of Urban Decarb, a parametric tool based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) designed to integrate carbon knowledge into the early stages of urban development to guide low emission design. By modelling key components of urban fabric and utilizing the visual programming environment of Grasshopper, Urban Decarb provides a dynamic platform for comparing the carbon footprint of various urban design scenarios. Case studies from Fælledby and Aarhus Sydhavn (DK) illustrate the tool's utility, showing significant reductions in Global Warming Potential (GWP) through material innovation, reuse of existing infrastructure, and holistic design strategies. A novel approach introduced in this study is the use of carbon goggles, a conceptual visualization method aiding in identifying high-carbon elements within existing urban infrastructure, thus informing sustainable redevelopment strategies. These insights reflect the importance of incorporating sustainability from the outset of urban planning to create low-carbon cities. The paper calls for integrating such tools into broader urban planning and policy-making processes, underscoring the necessity of multidisciplinary collaboration for the advancement of urban sustainability.
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    Inclusions – Landscape Narratives for Enhancing Landscape Architecture Pedagogy
    (Wichmann Verlag, 2024) Fricker, Pia; Hayek, Ulrike Wissen; Monacella, Rosalea; Ahn, Susann; Ervin, Stephen; Hensel, Michael; Rekittke, Jörg; Schroth, Olaf; Urech, Philipp R. W.; Vollmer, Matthias; Department of Architecture; Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich; Harvard University; Technische Universität Wien; University College Dublin; Weihenstephan University of Applied Sciences; Kyoto Institute of Technology
    With the escalating challenges of the climate crisis, we are confronted with accelerated urbanisation and environmental degradation, there is an urgent need for the transformation of our landscape and urban systems. This transformation necessitates the creation of environments that are not only equitable and resilient but also adaptive, with the capability to mend and respond adeptly toward more equitable, resilient, and adaptive environments that imbue the capacity to repair and respond to indeterminate future crises. Landscape architecture as a discipline has a pivotal role in designing alternative landscapes that have the ability to innovatively endure the uncertainties and challenges of a complex, ever evolving polycrisis set in motion by the climate crisis. The application of sophisticated analytical design tools and data from related disciplines, have the capacity to significantly enhance landscape design methodologies. Despite this potential, the integration into landscape architectural education remains sporadically implemented. This inconsistency highlights the imperative for a paradigm shift in landscape architectural pedagogy, that transcends the traditional digital / analogue and computational distinctions. It advocates for a design thinking approach where techniques are critically evaluated, and innovation is deemed essential in addressing the climate crisis. A re-evaluation of landscape architectural design pedagogy is necessary. Building on the discussions on future pedagogical methods at the DLA 2023 conference, an international workshop was convened to further this dialogue focusing on ‘inclusion’, ‘narratives’, and ‘co-design’ amidst the complex global challenges posed by the climate crisis. This involved analysing practice projects and design studio pedagogies guided by the question how to achieve climate responsive designs. This analysis explored the diverse flow of ideas, dynamics and frictions that emerge from multiple viewpoints. These critical evaluations of current theoretical and practical underpinnings helped in outlining a methodological framework for landscape design. This framework is intended to foster the creation of new landscape narratives, incorporating digital design education guidelines that underscore the urgent need for innovation and diversification of approaches within the field of landscape architecture. This investigative process ultimately led to the development of a set of guidelines that advocate for a significant transformation of landscape architecture education.
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    AI as a Collaborative Partner in Landscape Form-finding
    (Wichmann Verlag, 2024) Tan, Chuheng; Zhong, Ximing; Fricker, Prof. Dr. Pia; Department of Architecture; Architectural Association School of Architecture
    This study introduces an AI-assisted workflow for wind simulation in landscape form-finding. It can rapidly deliver a series of design options within designers' predefined constraints, each detailed with wind indicators. Integrating AI to detect subtle environmental changes and align with designers' intuitive decisions, this research fosters a collaborative paradigm between landscape architects and AI, aiming to shift from physics engine simulations to employing real-time AI simulations for rapidly aiding designers in the form-finding process in landscape design.
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    Enacting Entanglement : CreaTures, Socio-Technical Collaboration and Designing a Transformative Ethos
    (Springer, 2024-05-22) Light, Ann; Choi, Jaz Hee-jeong; Houston, Lara; Botero, Andrea; Department of Design; Inuse; University of Sussex; Anglia Ruskin University; Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences
    What happens when we try to enact theory in our practices of collaboration? The CreaTures project spent three years exploring the challenges of conceptualising and enacting entanglement in using creative practice to try and change worldviews towards understandings of interdependence. Acknowledging the backdrop to our work as pressing ecological breakdown, we sought to practice the cultural change we hoped to inspire. We discuss what we learnt about the socio-technical aspects of cooperation in managing entangled engagement as a methodological, as well as ontological, position. We centre this on a case study of how digital technology became a factor in both helpful and surprising ways during the project in response to the constraints of the Covid-19 pandemic. The paper concludes with reflections on how taking the spatial metaphor of entanglement, rather than scale, has helped us understand agency in our work. In discussing this transdisciplinary project as part of CSCW scholarship, we hope to open a space for questioning dominant techno-economic values and show how alternative philosophy can be enacted in practice in supporting transformation to a different design ethos.
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    Politicizing the Pictogram : Participatory Design Approaches within Indigenous Community Communication
    (National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 2024-04) Pinto Torres, Nathaly; Botero, Andrea; Julier, Guy; Department of Design; Inuse; NODUS
    Pictograms figure strongly in the culture and history of dominant modern design, yet they have long supported heterogeneous traditions and histories of collective counterpower. These devices can help to transition between images and words in intercultural scenarios: they construct dialogue and function to strengthen collective situated knowledge underpinning broader, counter-hegemonic communication. Accordingly, the article builds on an empirical study of a participatory design project contributing to an indigenous popular education initiative in the Ecuadorian Amazon, a project aimed at designing, collaboratively and interculturally within the framework of indigenous community communication, a pictogram system to support representation and reactualization of knowledge and practices with and by indigenous youth and their communities. The findings demonstrate how the pictogram, a seemingly passive graphic symbol, can function as a device in collaborative, politicized ways within the context of these indigenous societies. Accordingly, the alternative design-research and production framework introduced in the paper supports and learns from the histories of indigenous struggles, contributing to design with marginalized communities in diverse social realities.
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    Examining older adults' attitudes towards different mobility modes in Iran
    (Elsevier, 2022-07-02) Panahi, Niloofar; Pourjafar, Mohammadreza; Ranjbar, Ehsan; Soltani, Ali; Department of Architecture; Tarbiat Modares University; Shiraz University
    Introduction: Mobility is one of the main factors affecting healthy aging. Older people have distinct mobility patterns, and age-related problems might make it difficult to move independently, which can have various health consequences. However, there is a scarcity of studies on older people's mobility views in the Global South, particularly Iran. This paper examines older adults' attitudes towards different mobility modes in Shiraz, Iran, to fill this gap. Methods: Data were collected via semi-structured interviews with 66 older adults, and thematic analysis was used to identify their mobility attitudes and barriers. Results: As a result, five main themes were extracted, including environmental, socio-cultural, operational, economic, and health factors. In general, the respondents stressed the physical and mental health benefits of walking and cycling, although they thought Shiraz lacked enough walking and cycling infrastructure. Furthermore, many older adults were so reliant on their cars that they thought it would be difficult to survive without one. The inefficiency of public transit adds to a reliance on private vehicles. Conclusion: Examining the opinions of older adults provided valuable insights into the challenges they face when using different mobility modes. As there is a growing trend of car use among older adults in Shiraz, the city needs strategies to encourage older people to use more active and environmentally friendly modes of mobility, which can help improve the health of older adults.
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    Framing Regenerative Fashion
    (2024-06-06) Korhonen, Aino; Niinimäki, Kirsi; Department of Design; Schramme, Annick; Verboven, Nathalie; Fashion/Textile Futures
    ‘Regenerative fashion’ emerged as a term some years ago to describe extended sustainability commitments within the fashion sector. It has since become an increasingly popular word, a buzzword even, but currently there is no consensus regarding its definition. The term is often associated with regenerative agriculture and with claims to help mitigate climate change by increasing soil carbon capture during raw material production. This chapter looks at two rather distinct regenerative approach narratives that are forming in the fashion sector. One is a fashion practice that is a quantitative, market-based approach to regeneration; the other argues that fashion sustainability suffers from a serious equity deficit and takes a more qualitative, context-related and structural approach. The analysis draws from regenerative sustainability, design justice literature and environmental discourse analysis. Placing regenerative fashion within this theoretical framework illuminates the need for a series of questions concerning regenerative interventions in the fashion industry. This study aims to offer grounds for a discussion on regenerative fashion and the need to define the phenomena, describe how it is connected to the power-play behind fashion and discuss who/what stakeholders need to be included in the extended sustainability understanding.
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    Phytofictions and Phytofication
    (2024-03) Lohmann, Julia; Department of Design; Hendlin, Yogi Hale; Weggelaar, Johanna; Derossi, Natalia; Mugnai, Sergio; Empirica
    In ‘Phytofictions and Phytofication’, designer, researcher and educator Julia Lohmann introduces her practice-led research into seaweed as a material for making. In her work, macro-algae are material, method and muse in one. Lohmann makes a case for speculative and co-speculative design approaches to biomaterial development with an empathic mindset towards regenerative practices. She advocates a shift in the role of designers from individual authors to enablers of communities of practice that envision less harmful multi-species relations, set against the backdrop of the climate crisis. The ‘Department of Seaweed’, a community of practice Lohmann founded at the Victoria &Albert Museum London, demonstrates how museums can expand their role as repositories of artefacts into becoming spaces for multisensory material engagements and learning. Lohmann explains how ‘phytofication’ – actively embracing the material agency of macroalgae and treating it as a co-designer – enabled the development of biomaterials and objects that communicate the potential of seaweed to diverse publics. These in turn sparked ‘phytofictions’: conversations on how we might use algae and other biomaterials in the future. Julia Lohmann believes that working with algae, through phytofictions and phytofication, can help us shift our mindset from extraction towards regeneration – if we, as a species, learn from algae.
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    Design through Availability: Reform in the Architectural Design Process for Reuse
    (SINTEF Academic Press, 2024) Järvelä, Havu; Lehto, Antti; Department of Architecture
    The reuse of building parts has gained focus as a strategy enabling Circular Economy in the built environment. The critical challenge in consolidating reuse is the need to reorganize the design process and the scarcity of information supporting the required system level change. Research on reuse in the built environment is mainly based on theoretical models instead of realized projects. This article studies reuse process factors, comparing three realized large-scale office building projects in Europe with reused bearing structures, through 14 semi-structured interviews with project participants and complemented by project documentation. The main research questions are (1) How does situational information on reusable parts affect the design process? (2) What strategies are applied in the design processes of reuse projects? The research scope is limited to the main actors of a project team, because a design project is by and large facilitated by them. We focus on the reuse of the frame and outer shell structures in buildings due to their structural signi?cance and potential in reducing whole-life carbon emissions. The results suggest that the material search and design process phases run side by side rather than the material search being a separate step. The research clarified the previously missing knowledge on reuse-related design actions taken in each design process phase and consequently found the existence of repetitive iterative loops occurring throughout the process.
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    Toward a social responsibility-based model for urban design education
    (Palgrave Macmillan, 2023-12-04) Khatami, Seyed Mahdi; Boujari, Pouria; Ranjbar, Ehsan; Department of Architecture; Tarbiat Modares University
    There is a need for a model for urban design education due to its responsibility for the impact on the society and environment according to the twenty-first-century paradigm shift in higher education toward the social responsibility of universities. As an academic discipline concerned with the built environment, urban design can have a pivotal role in meeting the university social responsibility goal of promoting sustainable development. This article aims to provide the background for redesigning and adapting the educational program of urban design to the social responsibility approach. To this end, the study proposes a social responsibility-based model for urban design education through expert discussion in order to operationalize the responsibility of urban design toward the environment and society. The model is a process-oriented one consisting of four steps, namely, values, management, practices, and impacts.
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    Making new peripheries in fashion : or When you don't see what remains to be felt
    (2024-05) Valle-Noronha, Julia; Department of Design; Tepe, Jan
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    Exploring the role of social life cycle assessment in transition to circular economy: A systematic review
    (Elsevier, 2024-05-17) Bhatnagar, Anubhuti; Härri, Anna; Levänen, Jarkko; Niinimäki, Kirsi; Department of Design; Fashion/Textile Futures; LUT University
    Transitioning to a circular economy (CE) may create unintended social consequences. This systematic review analysed 45 published studies from 2009 to 2023 that evaluate these consequences using social lifecycle assessment (S-LCA), a tool based on the UNEP Guidelines. Most studies focused on circular activities like energy recovery and material recycling rather than reuse, remanufacturing, and repair. Worker-related issues like health, safety or fair wages were more frequently reported than impacts on consumers or society. Challenges in S-LCA application for CE include defining system boundary, identifying affected stakeholders, selecting relevant impact categories and indicators, obtaining verifiable data inventory, and addressing subjectivity in impact interpretation. A solution identified through the review was to enhance stakeholder involvement across industries to identify emerging social risks during the transition to CE. Periodically revising the UNEP Guideline based on these risks will provide a uniform framework for continued use of S-LCA in evaluating the transition to CE.
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    Managing and Negotiating : Approaches to quality work in clothing and textiles companies.
    (Berg, 2024-04-25) Aakko, Maarit; Niinimäki, Kirsi; Department of Design; Fashion/Textile Futures
    This qualitative study examines how various clothing companies approach quality and integrate it in their strategy and operations. It highlights the work required for reaching and maintaining a certain level of quality. The paper synthetizes these various approaches toward quality, with an aim to contribute to enhancing clothing longevity and other sustainable practices. The study is based on 15 semi-structured interviews with industry experts from the field of clothing and textiles, and analyzed by thematic analysis. It identifies the multilayered quality work that companies do on different core areas of business practice. The study shows how companies have to manage several aspects simultaneously in their quality related work, and negotiate and compromise between different activities to implement the quality level they are aiming for. The paper aims to show the different ideas regarding quality on the strategic level and to highlight their importance as the basis of quality work for clothing and textile companies. It is significant to define and align the company’s core values with the overall strategy and operations to best support the quality work and also enhance clothing longevity.