[final] Insinööritieteiden korkeakoulu / ENG

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    Position control and overall efficiency of electro-hydraulic system
    (2014) Bonato, Carlo; Minav, Tatiana; Insinööritieteiden korkeakoulu; Insinööritieteiden korkeakoulu; School of Engineering; Juhala, Matti
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    Evaluation of ice induced loads on ships in compressive ice
    (2014) Filipovic, Antonio; Suominen, Mikko; Sovelletun mekaniikan laitos; Insinööritieteiden korkeakoulu; School of Engineering; Kujala, Pentti
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    Developing a framework for prefabrication assesment using BIM
    (2014) Cereceda, Carlos; Singh, Vishal; Insinööritieteiden korkeakoulu; Insinööritieteiden korkeakoulu; School of Engineering; Singh, Vishal
    Building Information Modelling is a disruptive technology in construction at this precise moment, and the opportunity to take advantage of the technology by combining it with prefabrication should not be wasted. The adoption of BIM represents a complete revolution in the construction environment, since it changes construction processes in every aspect. The purpose of this project is to present the prefabrication components clearly, for relating them with the most conceptual and theoretical concepts used in construction. This will help the designer for the design of building components. Then, BIM benefits are presented with the potential of using this technology. Designing a component is only the first step in prefabrication procedure, since the manufacturing process can seriously affect to the whole construction process. The different techniques are explored, paying special attention to 3D-Printing and Contour Crafting. One more time, these technologies align with prefabrication principles. In order to achieve the highest efficiency in the construction process, methodologies such as Buildability, Function and Structure Sharing and Mass Customization are presented, as well as their possible implementation in the construction field.Finally, some real case studies which employ prefabrication methods are studied and analyzed according to the framework and the statements made before. The project also proposes some recommendations for those who plan to conduct such studies in future.
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    Economical and ecological optimization of binder system
    (2014) Estellés Belenguer, Marta; Punkki, Jouni; Yhdyskunta- ja ympäristötekniikan laitos; Insinööritieteiden korkeakoulu; School of Engineering; Cwirzen, Andrzej
    The environmental preservation and sustainable design has become an important issue for all industries, including the cement industry. Cement industry contributes 5% of the CO2 emitted to the atmosphere every year. For the production of 1 Tonne of Portland cement, 1 Tonne of carbon dioxide is emitted to the atmosphere. The main purpose of this research was to optimize the utilisation of alternative to OPC cementious binders in the concrete production. Five different kinds of binders were studied, including three ordinary mixes: Portland Cement, Portland Cement + Fly Ash, Plus-Cement + Fly Ash and two alkali-activated (AA) mixes: Portland Cement + Fly Ash + Blast Furnace Slag and Blast Furnace Slag + Limestone filler. The study was done in two steps: Initial Laboratory Studies, where the binder mixes were optimized focusing on compressive strength and workability, and Final Laboratory Studies where chosen optimised earlier mixes were studied in more detail including also their ecology and economy. The results showed that heat treated samples reached higher early compressive strength in comparison with no heat treated specimens. Compressive strength in alkali-activated binders was higher due to the activation with water-glass. The temperature of normal OPC concretes reached up to 55°C. The AA concrete showed much lower temperatures, what is beneficial for thick and heavily restrained concrete elements (such as walls). In the economical study, the ordinary mixes showed similar costs, while the alkali activated mixes were more expensive. On the contrary, in the ecological analysis, the AA mixes showed much lower CO2 emissions.
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    Modelling of air void content related to dielectric value of asphalt
    (2014) Vicente Agost, Hector; Pellinen, Terhi; Yhdyskunta- ja ympäristötekniikan laitos; Insinööritieteiden korkeakoulu; School of Engineering; Pellinen, Terhi
    The purpose of the study was to investigate the ratio between air void content and volumetric properties related to the dielectric values of asphalt. This information was supposed to contribute to a bigger project commissioned by the Finnish Transport Agency. The followed test method was to compact the samples by gyratory compaction, measurement of the densities and calculation of the volumetric properties and measurement of the dielectric values. The target height dimension of the samples was 125 mm. A large testing program of 18 cut samples was carried out in the laboratory of Highway Engineering. In first place Stone Mastic Asphalt 16 was the material used. Because of problems and obstacles found out while it was being used, the material was changed to Asphalt Concrete 16. The obtained values for the dielectric values and for the volumetric properties studied only gave one approximation of one relation already discovered but other studies. Furthermore, not more important conclusions could be observed in the results.
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    Effect of carbon nanotubes and nanofibers on autogenous shrinkage of Portland cement based binders
    (2014) Feneuil, Blandine; Ehrlacher, Alain; Rakennustekniikan laitos; Insinööritieteiden korkeakoulu; School of Engineering; Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Effects of four types of carbon nanotubes and nanofibers on autogenous shrinkage of cement paste have been investigated. Device for autogenous shrinkage measurement has been set up and tests have been run for each sample for 48 hours. In addition, to support interpretation of the results, bending and compression tests, workability measurement, FE-SEM observation and X-ray diffraction analysis have been carried out. Collected data showed that carbon nanofibers and nanotube, either non-treated or functionalized, could be used to reduce autogenous shrinkage. The uniformity of their dispersion appeared to be the main factor defining their efficiency in reducing the shrinkage. Hence, suitable nanotube/fiber concentration, amount of superplasticizer and sonication time was crucial to decrease the shrinkage. Also nanotube and nanofiber surface properties had an influence on the behaviour towards autogenous shrinkage: better bonding with cement matrix enabled a better shrinkage reduction.
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    Fracture flow DEM modelling for tentative estimation of the pressure field behaviour and inflow in ONKALO nuclear repository
    (2013) Lombardero Reymundo, Manuel; Hatakka, Lassi; Nuijten, Guido; Ström, Jesse; Martinelli, Daniele; Yhdyskunta- ja ympäristötekniikan laitos; Insinööritieteiden korkeakoulu; School of Engineering; Leveinen, Jussi
    In 1994 it was decreed by law that all nuclear waste produced in Finland must be disposed of within the Finnish territory. For this purpose, the ONKALO project is being developed. ONKALO is a hard rock research laboratory, located in Eurajoki, whose excavation began in 2004. It is being constructed at the moment, and will be part of the ONKALO deep geological repository for nuclear waste disposal. The storage in the repository will start with the first disposal in 2020, and it will last until its completion in the 2100'S when it will be closed sealed and the entrance buried. An access tunnel, one shaft and two semi-bored shafts currently integrate ONKALO. The access tunnel is approximately 5 km long and reaches a depth of about 460 m below the surface, as well as the outlet shaft. The other two shafts only reach the level -290. Due to the forthcoming purpose of this excavation for nuclear waste storage, and because of groundwater migration carrying dangerous substance can occur, several limitations have been set to the excavation processes. In the exhaust shaft an inflow limitation has been set in 5 l/min, but there are some fracture zones that are intersecting the shaft and are bringing water into ONKALO through the exhaust shaft. The general purpose of this study is developing a reliable joint fluid flow in hard rock model. The specific scope of this study is to create a numerical DEM model to simulate how the groundwater and pressure field behaves in the vicinity of the shaft after it is excavated, predict the path that groundwater follows within the bedrock in order to locate eventual leakage points, and attempt to simulate how the grout spreads through the fracture network, in order to give further advice in the excavation of other shafts. As a result of this study, it can be confirmed that groundwater flow in deep hard rock mainly occurs along fractured zones towards an excavated void. Practically no flow takes place along tight fractures. Post grouting works improve water tightness of the rock where the injection is done. In general, no new paths for groundwater flow are created and the total inflow substantially decreased.
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    Influence of high stress conditions in hard rock bolting
    (2013) Cristiá Abad, Sergio; Nuijten, Guido; Ström, Jesse; Yhdyskunta- ja ympäristötekniikan laitos; Insinööritieteiden korkeakoulu; School of Engineering; Rinne, Mikael
    The LAGUNA-LBNO project is a pan-European project which consists of the excavation of a certain amount of large-size underground facilities aimed for nucleon decay research purposes. Including several neutrino-physics experiments, the last updates of the project still consider the lowest levels of the Pyhäsalmi Mine (central Finland) for hosting the Liquid Argon (LAr / Glacier) and Liquid Scintillator (LSc / Lena) experiments. At that depth, and taking into account the rock mass characteristics, the rock failure mechanism changes compared the blocky shallow rock masses, therefore, the layout and size of the bolt system must be revised from the traditional methods of assessments. This final project tries to understand the response of the bolts installed in massive brittle rock masses under high stress levels. In this sense, using the Finite Element Method (FEM), the aim is focused to study the behaviour of a representative bolt system in one of the caverns designed for LAGUNA project, as well as how the development of the excavation affect the bolt response. In addition, considering a weaker geological structure, how it could influence the behaviour of the bolt system from the homogenous case. Therefore, two kind of environment were created; one with one entire homogeneous rock mass and another one adding a sub-vertical layer of weaker material in the host rock. In the models the load taken by the bolts never exceeded the 30% of the assumed capacity for the steel rebar, and the pick-up length of those was in average of 8m. The most critical point during the excavation was the achievement of the dome, where a big redistribution of displacements occurs. On the other hand, the excavation of the bench lightly compensates the displacements after the excavation of the dome. By introducing the weaker material into the models, the bolt response showed a tension peak where the footwall interface of the weaker body intercepts the bolt, which is big enough to break both grout and steel. The shear stiffness of the joints is the parameter which strongly influences such behaviour. As a conclusion, the bolts installed in such conditions of stress showed no problem when there are no interfaces in the host rock. In addition, the achievement of the dome was the most critical point in the excavation sequence. Anyway, the near-field failure of the rock mass, related with the plastic areas, does not affect the integrity of the bolts, but the creation of new far-field joints could strongly influence the integrity of the bolt system.
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    Svensk och finsk väglagstiftning - en processuell jämförelse
    (2013) Högblom Moisio, Alexandra; Mattsson, Hans; Maankäyttötieteiden laitos; Insinööritieteiden korkeakoulu; School of Engineering; Vitikainen, Arvo
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    Experimental investigation on the gas jet behaviour for a hollow cone piezo injector
    (2013) Künsch, Zaira; Hulkkonen, Tuomo; Sarjovaara, Teemu; Energiatekniikan laitos; Insinööritieteiden korkeakoulu; School of Engineering; Larmi, Martti
    Increased fuel consumption has strengthened concern about depletion of fossil fuel reserves and about negative impact of engine emissions on the atmosphere. As a consequence, engine developers face the challenging goal of minimising fuel consumption, while satisfying strict emission legislations and maintaining or even improving engine performance. Compressed natural gas direct-injected engines are considered a valid solution for the fulfilment of all these demanding requirements and for reducing oil dependency. For this reason, new gas injection strategies have to be developed for easing fuel direct injection and enhancing mixing process. Within this study, a hollow cone piezoelectric injector originally designed for gasoline direct injection is deployed for generating hollow cone gas jets. Liquid sprays generated through this injector type have been already investigated. However, no scientific publication provides detailed information about gas jets generated with this injector type. Objective of this work is exactly to provide first information on gas jet behaviour for a hollow cone piezo injector. Hollow cone gas jet was experimentally investigated through tracer-based planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique. Acetone was selected as the most appropriate tracer. Acetone-doped nitrogen was injected in a constant pressure and temperature measurement chamber. The jet was imaged at different time delays after start of injection and its time evolution was analysed. Further, injection pressure and needle lift were varied and their influence on the gas jet characteristics was investigated. PLIF measurements with injection pressure ranging from 5 to 30 bar and needle lifts from 25 to 62 µm were carried out. PLIF images were post-processed and analysed and following macroscopic jet quantities were obtained: penetration length, maximal width, area, volume and average jet concentration. All these quantities provide important information on gas jet injection process, since they describe the spatial distribution of the injected gas in the surrounding air. The results show that increased injection pressure provides higher penetration length, jet width, area and volume and higher averaged jet concentration. Increasing needle lift has similar impact on the jet behaviour as increasing the injection pressure: jet penetration length, maximal width, area, and volume and jet average concentration are higher at higher needle lifts. In particular, this study illustrates that both injection pressure and needle lift variations have a greater effect on the jet maximal width than on the penetration length. This is related to the fact that higher injection pressures lower the collapsing tendency of the gas jet towards the centreline. Further, penetration length of hollow cone jets shows 0.8-power-Iaw dependency on time.
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    Search of a cost-effective 3D scanning system
    (2013) Etayo, Alvaro; Laakso, Sampsa; Koneenrakennustekniikan laitos; Insinööritieteiden korkeakoulu; School of Engineering; Aaltonen, Kalevi
    Optical reconstruction techniques to digitize objects require expensive and complex equipment. This project proposes the design and assembly of a 3D laser scanning system with available scan control software, concerning about low-cost alternatives, the only hardware requirements are a light source and a digital camera. The goal of this work is the evaluation design of a cost-effective system for 3D data acquisition, so the reconstructed geometry is exportable to CAD programs. The work evaluates the performance of different commercial scanners available, and the imaging standards are reviewed to have a framework for the performance evaluation process of each scanning device. The proposed cost-effective device is based on the structured light technique, and the hardware and software is selected according to parameters of the intended scanner characteristic in order to accomplish the best solution for optical 3D imaging.
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    Design of an information capturing and visualization system of the visitors of Aalto University Design Factory
    (2013) Trivino Massó, Carles; Laakso, Mikko; Leal Martinez, David; Koneenrakennustekniikan laitos; Insinööritieteiden korkeakoulu; School of Engineering; Ekman, Kalevi
    Aalto University Design Factory, one of the spearhead projects of the recently formed Aalto University, is a meeting point for students, educators and practitioners from the fields of engineering, design and business. The Design Factory is a constantly evolving experimental platform for interdisciplinary education and collaboration related to product development. As Design Factory continues to grow from its birth four years ago, it is gaining worldwide interest, hosting various courses, along with projects, events and visits from different universities, institutions and companies, both national and international. This continuing development has presented a need for a system to efficiently collect information needed to help document visitors and activities. This thesis depicts a design project with the main goal of designing a system that helps capturing information from the visitors of the Design Factory in an easy, organized and programmable way. This system enables the Design Factory to start a database of visual and contact information of the people for internal documentation, research and external promotion and communication. As an outcome of the design project, a basic working prototype of the system was developed and provided to Design Factory for testing and further development. The system development process follows general product and systems design and project engineering methodologies and procedures with the documentation and reflections of the author serving as a future reference for development of similar types of projects.
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    Applicability of pumped storage power in Finland
    (2013) Cramer, Stefan; Aalto, A.; Ziller, A.; Yhdyskunta- ja ympäristötekniikan laitos; Insinööritieteiden korkeakoulu; School of Engineering; Järvelä, Juha; Boes, R.
    The discrepancy between electricity production and consumption asks for regulation power and energy storage capacities. In Finland regulation power is produced comparatively expensively by thermal reserve power plants and is imported. In future Finland has an increasing regulation power demand due to focus on nuclear and on wind power. Pumped storage power is up to date the only economically sound and environmentally compatible technology for large scale energy storage. Although this technology is largely used in other countries Finland has not any single pumped storage power plant in operation. The aim of this study is to evaluate applicability of pumped storage power for Finnish conditions. The built up PSP operation simulation model uses price spreads referred to a moving average energy price. With price series of Nord Pool for Finland in hourly resolution as input the model generates site specific turbining and pumping decision series determing operation benefit. As applicability of pumped storage power depends on site specific conditions possible pumped storage sites are identified and feasibility is evaluated in case studies. In iterative procedure operation scheme, design flow rate as well as hydraulically and electromechanical design 1S optimized. The plants are predesigned in conceptual and feasibility studies. Thereby technical, economic and environmental aspects are respected. The predesigned feasible PSP Tampere between large lakes has an installed power of 12 MW. Simulated annual performance is characterized by an increasing trend with large annual fluctuations. In Pyhäsalmi mine the pre-dimensioned PSP with 1400 m head and an installed power of 660 MW is highly feasible with a direct payback time of 5 years. The power is provided by two reversible multistage pump turbine units and by two dual units with Pelton turbine and multistage pumps. The dual units enable regulation within seconds and input power adjustment by hydraulic shortcut operation. The hourly resolution of the in the model used regulation energy price data leads herewith to an underestimation of pumped storage operation benefit. Average stable hardrock conditions in mine Pyhäsalmi allow drilling of penstock directly into hardrock. Detailed geological conditions have to be investigated in further studies. With good geological conditions and deep ore mines of large storage volume Finland has optimal conditions for underground pumped storage. Due to straight waterways high hydraulic efficiencies can be achieved in mines. On the other hand electromechanical efficiencies get reduced for deep mines due to the need for multistage pump turbines or pumps. Constructing of pumped storage power plants between large lakes requires large design flow rates due to usually low heads. Hydraulic losses are thereby considerable. Using large natural lakes environmental impacts of pumped storage is small with lake level fluctuations of some centimetres. The use of mines does not consume new surface areas. Compared to alternative technologies pumped storage power is free of greenhouse gas emissions. Sustainability requires energy storage capacities and the necessary infrastructure can also in Finland be realized by large scale pumped storage.
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    Effect of binder composition of concrete on combined attack of frost and seawater focusing on marine structures
    (2012) Sztermen, Péter; Yhdyskunta- ja ympäristötekniikan laitos; Insinööritieteiden korkeakoulu; School of Engineering; Cwirzen, Andrzej Csoma, Rózsa
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    Rules for buckling design of steel tapered columns
    (2012) Moyá Manes, Juan Francisco; Rakennustekniikan laitos; Insinööritieteiden korkeakoulu; School of Engineering; Mäkeläinen, Pentti
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    Comparison of SUPERPAVE mix design and performance criteria with European design methods
    (2012) Sawatzky, Rudolf; Pellinen, Terhi; Yhdyskunta- ja ympäristötekniikan laitos; Insinööritieteiden korkeakoulu; School of Engineering; Pellinen, Terhi
    The mix design of asphalt mixtures has changed over the last decades due to various developments and is now challenged again by increasing traffic volumes and increased requirements concerning performance and durability of pavements. A turn to more fundamental design concepts is sought by the European Standardization Committee dealing with European wide uniform standards in highway engineering as well as in other engineering fields. This thesis compares the current practice of mix design in Finland and in Germany and the United States of America (Superpave mix design) in order to investigate the applied approaches. The comparison was preceded by a thorough literature study of mix designs in general and the current standards providing the corresponding requirements and guidelines for mix designs. To illustrate the requirements a volumetric window was computed which shows the relationships of the volumetric properties and offers the graphical view of acceptable mixtures according the mentioned specifications. The comparison was performed for the most common types of asphalt: asphalt concrete CAC) as a continuous graded mixture and stone matrix asphalt (SMA) as a gap graded mixture. Both types of asphalt were designed applying the three selected concepts and evaluated following the specific guidelines and specifications. Furthermore the performance of the designed mixtures was investigated with the following mechanical properties: stability (Marshall Stability test), stiffness (resilient modulus, diametric test) and indirect tensile strength. These mechanical properties were evaluated and compared with the expected resistance to fatigue cracking, one of the major distresses for asphalt pavements. The expected performance was obtained from the results of a cyclic diametric test, conducted in a stress controlled mode. The fatigue life of all mixtures was assessed. Research showed, that the different compaction methods and binder selection criteria had more influence on the designed mixture that the influence of the varying gradation. However, mix design according to Superpave system gave the lowest binder content and the coarsest gradation for the AC as well as for the SMA, caused of the most severe compaction effort. The German mix design led to the highest binder content for both types of asphalts. This was due to the compaction method and effort which was the Marshall hammer. The Finnish mix design yielded with stiffest mixture and therefore the best rutting resistance due to the selected stiff binder grade. A correlation between the mechanical properties of stiffness/strength and fatigue life was confirmed for the AC.
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    Modelling the North-Northeastern region of Brazilian electricity system - Emphasizing the ancillary structures
    (2012) Brilhante Dias Gomes de Azevedo, Miguel; Paatero, Jukka; Energiatekniikan laitos; Insinööritieteiden korkeakoulu; School of Engineering; Syri, Sanna
    Power systems influence nowadays society in such a number of ways that one cannot ignore its importance. This translates to economical, structural and humanitarian factors that are a pillar to modern society. Understanding and developing these systems are pivotal for a development of any country. Brazil has been surging as a country in development on the past years, with reflections on its power system. Historically analysing and comprehending the current paradigm of the system and its structure is the first step one has to make. With billions of euros at stake within the electricity market, modelling and simulating are necessary steps when investing large sums of money. PLEXOS for Power Systems is software that can provide the support for this kind of analysis, which was used in the development of this work. After understanding how PLEXOS plays with complex databases revolving around the system, some simplifications were made due to the lack of data. Hydroelectric generation and load demand were estimated, types of generators were grouped, and interconnections were simplified. Introduction of wind generation and load intermittency creates less stable systems, resulting in the need of ancillary systems. The Brazilian system has its own rules regarding primary, secondary and tertiary reserves. A high dependency on hydroelectric sources is easily observed, the quick response times of the expensive fuel generators are critical, while gas powered utilities provide a steady, yet controllable and cheap, power source. The complexity of the system and lack of data translates into some errors in the simulation which are promptly discussed.
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    Numerical analysis of thin-walled steel pipe bridges
    (2011) Szanto, Vera; Raikunen, Arto; Rakennustekniikan laitos; Insinööritieteiden korkeakoulu; School of Engineering; Salokangas, Lauri
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    Finite element analysis of stresses in beam structures
    (2011) Arnan Ribas, Conrad; Aalto, Jukka; Rakennustekniikan laitos; Insinööritieteiden korkeakoulu; School of Engineering; Aalto, Jukka
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    3D Structural and hydrogeological modeling of Metsähovi research site
    (2010) Gerrits, P.C.; Hokkanen, Tero; Heimovaara, T.; Insinööritieteiden ja arkkitehtuurin tiedekunta; Insinööritieteiden korkeakoulu; School of Engineering; Leveinen, Jussi