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ItemManaging the move to the cloud – analyzing the risks and opportunities of cloud-based accounting information systems(Nature Publishing Group, 2015) Asatiani, Aleksandre; Penttinen, Esko; Tieto- ja palvelutalouden laitos; Department of Information and Service Economy; Real-Time Economy; Kauppakorkeakoulu; School of BusinessThe accounting industry is being disrupted by the introduction of cloud-based accounting information systems (AIS) that allow for a more efficient allocation of work between the accountant and the client company. In cloud-based AIS, the accountant and the client company as well as third parties such as auditors can simultaneously work on the data in real time. This, in turn, enables a much more granular division of work between the parties. This teaching case considers Kluuvin Apteekki, a small pharmacy business whose owner faces critical management decisions on how to embrace this new opportunity to move to the cloud. Students are guided to evaluate the advantages and drawbacks of cloud computing in the specific context of accounting services. Also, the owner must make a set of critical decisions concerning which tasks to outsource The accounting process comprises of several tasks and sub-tasks, adding to the complexity of the decision making problem. The main learning outcome of the case is related to the development of the skills and competencies needed in creating a strong business case for implementing IT-enabled business processes. ItemMNCs and local cross-sector partnerships: The case of a smarter Baltic Sea(Elsevier BV, 2014) Ritvala, Tiina; Salmi, Asta; Andersson, Per; Johtamisen laitos; Department of Management Studies; Kauppakorkeakoulu; School of BusinessAlthough cross-sector partnerships (XSPs) between multinational corporations (MNCs), governments and non-profit organizations are increasingly used to solve local problems and build responsible business, they have received limited attention in international business research. Because XSPs are vulnerable to conflicts and pose specific demands for subsidiary managers, it is critical to understand the integration mechanisms of XSPs that enhance their success. We study managerial sensemaking in an XSP formed to improve the environmental state of the Baltic Sea. Drawing from a cross-disciplinary literature review and insights from a case study we identify three kinds of integration mechanisms: resource mechanisms, ideational and social mechanisms, and organizational mechanisms. Our findings further imply that managerial “bricolage”, i.e. strategically combining resources at hand, is critical in enacting the integration mechanisms. The findings help to understand how integration and success of MNCs' local partnerships may be increased. ItemBeyond Prototypes: Drivers of Market Categorization in Functional Foods and Nanotechnology(Wiley-Blackwell, 2015) Granqvist, Nina; Ritvala, Tiina; Johtamisen laitos; Department of Management Studies; Kauppakorkeakoulu; School of BusinessWe develop a nuanced understanding of what drives producers’ and audiences’ categorization activities throughout market category development. Prior research on market categories assumes prototypical similarity to be the main or even only driver of categorization. Drawing on a comparative, longitudinal case study of the market categories ‘functional foods’ and ‘nanotechnology’ in Finland, we find that evolving perceptions, knowledge, and goals also impact categorization. Furthermore, our analysis uncovers that goal-based categorization is characteristic for vital market categories, and the lack thereof may mark a waning interest and category decline. Overall, while previous research stresses the role of clear boundaries and knowledge bases for a viable category, we find that overly strict boundaries may constrain category vitality and renewal. ItemMobilisation of issue networks: the case of fighting heart disease in Finland(Inderscience Publishers, 2009) Ritvala, Tiina; Salmi, Asta; Johtamisen laitos; Department of Management Studies; Kauppakorkeakoulu; School of BusinessIn this study we examine the mobilisation processes of public, private and third sector actors to solve pressing contemporary issues. We develop an analytical framework that integrates the business network and institutional entrepreneurship literature to investigate the initial mobilisation processes of issue networks. Empirically, we focus on collective actions in Finland to tackle heart disease, which is a pressing global health issue. Our results stress the role of network mobilisers in creating institutional change by framing the issues and connecting different networks. We argue that network relationships are the key resource for creating institutional change and solving common issues. ItemValue-based network mobilization: A case study of modern environmental networkers(Aalto University, 2010) Ritvala, Tiina; Salmi, Asta; Johtamisen laitos; Department of Management Studies; Kauppakorkeakoulu; School of BusinessThis article addresses current environmental issues by taking a network perspective to examine the initiatives to solve them. Previous investigations of network dynamics and mobilization concern the business context, but we broaden the analysis to the societal networks wherein business is embedded. Our aim is to investigate the early emergence of collective action around a common issue. We analyze the network mobilizers, who promote the issue and its solutions, and the mobilization mechanisms that they employ. We have conducted a case study that examines three initiatives to save the Baltic Sea, all involving business, governmental, and civil society actors. This rich case material leads us to formulate a conceptual model of value-based network mobilization. The mobilizing actors, values, and relationship sediments emerge as important factors in creating issue networks. Our key contribution is to show how the environmental issues bring new types of actors to networks and change the rules of the game. We propose that ‘modern environmental networkers’ should become more important in the future, and that business firms need to develop their skills in playing the new games with these new actors. ItemNetwork mobilizers and target firms: The case of saving the Baltic Sea(Elsevier BV, 2011) Ritvala, Tiina; Salmi, Asta; Johtamisen laitos; Department of Management Studies; Kauppakorkeakoulu; School of BusinessThis paper examines why and how firms participate in issue networks that aim at solving contemporary complex problems. We build mainly on network and stakeholder literatures to understand mobilization from a relational perspective. Drawing on a single embedded case study of four initiatives to save the Baltic Sea, we build a multilevel model for firm participation in issue networks. Besides discovering diverse motivational factors, the model sheds light on the interaction between individual, organization, and network levels factors explaining mobilization. We argue that there is high theoretical, managerial, and societal relevance for studying the dynamics of issue networks—a topic which could be better incorporated in the research agenda of business network scholars. ItemScientists as Midwives to Cluster Emergence: An Institutional Work Framework(Informa UK Limited, 2012) Ritvala, Tiina; Kleymann, Birgit; Markkinoinnin laitos; Department of Marketing; Kauppakorkeakoulu; School of BusinessThe question of how embedded actors can create institutions that support cluster emergence remains unsolved in the cluster and national innovation systems literature. The present paper extends the recent literature on institutional entrepreneurship and institutional work to solve this paradox of embedded agency in the context of science-based clusters. Building on a longitudinal single case study of a functional foods cluster in Finland, we present an institutional work framework for cluster formation. We argue that, in addition to ideational, material and bridging work, authentic leadership work is critical for cluster emergence. The results of the study highlight the opportunities that scientists have to act as midwives to cluster formation, but they also show that well-functioning clusters need a broader support base. Item'Fifty is the new thirty': ageing well and start-up activities(Informa UK Limited, 2014) Kautonen, T.; Minniti, M.; Johtamisen laitos; Department of Management Studies; Entrepreneurship; Yrittäjyys; Kauppakorkeakoulu; School of BusinessThis article examines the impact of ageing well on the employment behaviour of ageing workers. We focus on start-up activities because doing so circumvents potential constraints on labour market participation imposed by statutory retirement and employer practices. Using Finnish survey data, we find a positive and significant relationship between ageing well and the likelihood of engaging in start-up activities for individuals in their late forties and throughout their fifties. ItemTo Reach the Clouds: Application of Topic Models to the Meta-review on Cloud Computing Literature(Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016) Upreti, Bikesh; Asatiani, Aleksandre; Malo, Pekka; Tieto- ja palvelutalouden laitos; Department of Information and Service Economy; Kauppakorkeakoulu; School of BusinessCloud computing remains an increasingly popular topic among practitioners as well as researchers. The literature spans across multiple disciplines, and the knowledge is fragmented and not systematized. To address this issue we apply topic models to conduct a meta-review on cloud computing. We identify twenty research topics across multiple disciplines, and demonstrate the use of the approach to conduct reviews in the field of information systems (IS). In additionally, we discuss multidisciplinary nature of cloud research, as well as research topics attracting contributions from various scientific fields. ItemLanguage as an issue in international internal communication: English or local language? If English, what English?(Elsevier BV, 2012) Louhiala-Salminen, Leena; Kankaanranta, Anne; Johtamisen laitos; Department of Management Studies; Kauppakorkeakoulu; School of BusinessThe present paper discusses internal communication in the global context, with a focus on language as an issue for the organization. Although ‘language’, naturally, is a resource that enables any – internal or other – communication, it has not been examined in public relations research but has been taken for granted or as given. The current pace of globalization in all sectors has rapidly globalized internal communication and the language issue needs to be addressed. On the basis of two empirical studies we discuss language strategy and language use in international internal communication. Our findings show that although a common ‘corporate language’ – which mostly today refers to English – enables internal communication, it is not a straightforward solution but a number of issues need to be considered. For example, as international communication in a business context is today mostly conducted by non-native speakers of English, their language can be characterized as BELF (English as Business Lingua Franca), which differs from ‘standard English’ in many ways. Also, language issues need to be considered for organizational credibility and knowledge sharing and for constructing trust and rapport in international interaction. ItemProfessional Communication in a Global Business Context: The Notion of Global Communicative Competence(Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2011) Louhiala-Salminen, Leena; Kankaanranta, Anne; Johtamisen laitos; Department of Management Studies; Kauppakorkeakoulu; School of BusinessOn the basis of an extensive survey study conducted among business professionals engaging in global communication, this paper discusses communicative competence. Rapid changes in work environments, particularly advancing globalization and new technology, have highlighted the need for expanding our knowledge of the elements that constitute communicative competence in global encounters. Competence has been investigated by several researchers; however, the language perspective, particularly the language used for international communication, that is, English as a Lingua Franca (ELF), has largely been ignored. Our findings indicate that global communicative competence (GCC) consists of three layers: multicultural competence, competence in English as a Business Lingua Franca (BELF) and the communicator's business know-how. Based on our findings, we present a model for GCC, which includes language as a key component. Implications for theory, practice, and education include the need for a multidisciplinary approach and the acknowledgement of ELF/BELF as the language of global interaction. ELF IBELF assumes a shared "core" of the English language, but focuses on interactional skills, rapport building, and the ability to ask for and provide clarifications. ItemBelf Competence as Business Knowledge of Internationally Operating Business Professionals(SAGE Publications, 2010) Kankaanranta, Anne; Planken, B.; Johtamisen laitos; Department of Management Studies; Kauppakorkeakoulu; School of BusinessBusiness English as a lingua franca (BELF) has come to dominate as the shared code used to "get work done" in international business. In this article, the authors explore internationally operating business professionals’ perceptions of BELF communication and its “success” at work, based on selected data from an online survey (N = 987) and in-depth interviews (N = 27) conducted in European multinational companies. The findings show that BELF can be characterized as a simplified, hybridized, and highly dynamic communication code. BELF competence calls for clarity and accuracy of content (rather than linguistic correctness) and knowledge of business-specific vocabulary and genre conventions (rather than only “general” English). In addition, because BELF interactions take place with nonnative speakers (NNSs) from a variety of cultural backgrounds, the relational orientation is perceived as integral for BELF competence. In sum, BELF competence can be considered an essential component of business knowledge required in today’s global business environment. ItemThe Evolution of English as the Business Lingua Franca: Signs of Convergence in Chinese and Finnish Professional Communication(SAGE Publications, 2013) Kankaanranta, Anne; Lu, W.; Johtamisen laitos; Department of Management Studies; Kauppakorkeakoulu; School of BusinessThis study questions the conventional view of the indirectness of Chinese communication. Drawing on qualitative interviews with Finnish and Chinese business professionals, the authors examine the effect of cultural identity on the directness of the communication of Chinese professionals who work for internationally operating Finnish companies located in Beijing and Shanghai, China, and who use English as the shared language with their Finnish colleagues. Three components of cultural identity (i.e., vocation as an international business professional, fairly young age, and the use of English as the business lingua franca) are particularly relevant in the participants’ professional communication and stimulated its openness and directness. The study finds that the evolution of English as the business lingua franca can be detected in the signs of convergence identified in Chinese and Finnish professional communication. Item"English? - Oh, it's just work!": A study of BELF users’ perceptions(Elsevier BV, 2010) Kankaanranta, Anne; Louhiala-Salminen, Leena; Johtamisen laitos; Department of Management Studies; Kauppakorkeakoulu; School of BusinessWith the increasing number of business professionals operating globally, knowledge of successful English lingua franca in business contexts (BELF) has become an important element in overall business know-how. Here, we report on a research project focusing on everyday BELF communication at work. It consists of an extensive survey, and related interviews among international business professionals. In addition to offering some quantitative data on communicative situations, the survey results show the respondents’ views of situation-specific factors in their communicative situations in relation to each other. Our findings suggest that English in today’s global business environment is “simply work” and its use is highly contextual. Thus, knowledge of the specific business context, the particular genres used in the particular business area, and overall business communication strategies are tightly intertwined with proficiency in English, which impacts upon teaching. ItemRobustness of the Theory of Planned Behavior in Predicting Entrepreneurial Intentions and Actions(Wiley-Blackwell, 2015) Kautonen, Teemu; van Gelderen, Marco; Fink, Matthias; Johtamisen laitos; Department of Management Studies; Entrepreneurship; Yrittäjyys; Kauppakorkeakoulu; School of BusinessThis analysis demonstrates the relevance and robustness of the Theory of Planned Behavior in the prediction of business start-up intentions and subsequent behavior based on longitudinal survey data (2011 and 2012; N=969) from the adult population in Austria and Finland. By doing so, the study addresses two weaknesses in current research: the limited scope of samples used in the majority of prior studies and the scarcity of investigations studying the translation of entrepreneurial intentions into behavior. The article discusses conceptual and methodological issues related to studying the intention-behavior relationship and outlines avenues for future research. ItemThe moral legitimacy of entrepreneurs: An analysis of early-stage entrepreneurship across 26 countries(SAGE Publications, 2014) Kibler, E.; Kautonen, T.; Johtamisen laitos; Department of Management Studies; Kauppakorkeakoulu; School of BusinessThis article will develop our socio-cultural understanding of entrepreneurship by examining the influence of the moral legitimacy of entrepreneurs in society on an individual’s engagement in early-stage entrepreneurship. A multilevel analysis conducted across 26 countries shows that the higher the perceived degree of moral legitimacy, the more likely an individual is to think about starting a business compared to not thinking about it; to start preparing a business as against just considering it; or to found and run a business as compared to just engaging in preparation activities. We conclude that moral norms in society play an important role in early-stage entrepreneurship and that makes it important to legitimize the understanding of entrepreneurs as moral and beneficial for society as a whole. ItemHow do banks assess entrepreneurial competence? The role of voluntary information disclosure(SAGE Publications, 2014) Moro, A.; Fink, M.; Kautonen, T.; Johtamisen laitos; Department of Management Studies; Entrepreneurship; Yrittäjyys; Kauppakorkeakoulu; School of BusinessThis research adds to the literature on relationship lending in the small business context by discussing the roles of entrepreneurial competence and voluntarily disclosed information as determinants of credit access. More specifically, we propose that the loan manager’s evaluation of the information voluntarily disclosed by the entrepreneur is an important complement to publicly available financial data and soft information collected through observation and third parties in framing the loan manager’s perception of the entrepreneur’s competence. Further, we argue that banks charge lower interest rates if the loan manager perceives the entrepreneur to be competent. Econometric analysis based on 433 bank-firm relationships supports these hypothesised relationships. The results imply that entrepreneurs need to communicate their competence effectively to loan managers, and that banks should utilise their loan managers’ personal evaluations as inputs to lending decisions. ItemDeterminants of job satisfaction for salaried and self-employed professionals in Finland(Informa UK Limited, 2013) Hytti, Ulla; Kautonen, Teemu; Akola, Elisa; Johtamisen laitos; Department of Management Studies; Kauppakorkeakoulu; School of BusinessThis paper contributes to our knowledge of the determinants of job satisfaction by analysing the effects of employment status (self-employed or salaried employee) and work characteristics (autonomy, variety, task identity, task significance and feedback) on job satisfaction in a sample of 2327 Finnish professionals. The results of the structural equation model analysis show that although the self-employed are significantly more satisfied with their jobs than their salaried counterparts also in Finland, employment status as such does not explain job satisfaction when the five work characteristics are added to the structural model. Further, the analysis finds that task significance, variety and autonomy have similar effects on the level of job satisfaction among both employees and self-employed individuals, while feedback has a weaker effect when the individual is self- employed and task identity does not affect job satisfaction in either group. Overall the study points to the need to develop jobs that are high in autonomy, variety and task significance for professionals in order to enhance job satisfaction. ItemAgeing and entrepreneurial preferences(Springer Science + Business Media, 2014) Kautonen, Teemu; Down, Simon; Minniti, Maria; Johtamisen laitos; Department of Management Studies; Entrepreneurship; Yrittäjyys; Kauppakorkeakoulu; School of BusinessPrevious research on age and entrepreneurship assumed homogeneity and downplayed age-related differences in the motives and aims underlying enterprising behaviour. We argue that the heterogeneity of entrepreneurship influences how the level of entrepreneurial activity varies with age. Using a sample of 2566 respondents from 27 European countries we show that entrepreneurial activity increases almost linearly with age for individuals who prefer to only employ themselves (self-employers), whereas it increases up to a critical threshold age (late 40s) and decreases thereafter for those who aspire to hire workers (owner-managers). Age has a considerably smaller effect on entrepreneurial behaviour for those who do not prefer self-employment but are pushed into it by lack of alternative employment opportunities (reluctant entrepreneurs). Our results question the conventional wisdom that entrepreneurial activity declines with age and suggest that effective responses to demographic changes require policy makers to pay close attention to the heterogeneity of entrepreneurial preferences. ItemGender Differences in Emotional Responses to Cooperative and Competitive Game Play(Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2014) Kivikangas, J. Matias; Kätsyri, Jari; Järvelä, Simo; Ravaja, Niklas; Tieto- ja palvelutalouden laitos; Department of Information and Service Economy; EMOID; Kauppakorkeakoulu; School of BusinessPrevious research indicates that males prefer competition over cooperation, and it is sometimes suggested that females show the opposite behavioral preference. In the present article, we investigate the emotions behind the preferences: Do males exhibit more positive emotions during competitive than cooperative activities, and do females show the opposite pattern? We conducted two experiments where we assessed the emotional responses of same-gender dyads (in total 130 participants, 50 female) during intrinsically motivating competitive and cooperative digital game play using facial electromyography (EMG), skin conductance, heart rate measures, and self-reported emotional experiences. We found higher positive emotional responses (as indexed by both physiological measures and self-reports) during competitive than cooperative play for males, but no differences for females. In addition, we found no differences in negative emotions, and heart rate, skin conductance, and self-reports yielded contradictory evidence for arousal. These results support the hypothesis that males not only prefer competitive over cooperative play, but they also exhibit more positive emotional responses during them. In contrast, the results suggest that the emotional experiences of females do not differ between cooperation and competition, which implies that less competitiveness does not mean more cooperativeness. Our results pertain to intrinsically motivated game play, but might be relevant also for other kinds of activities.Previous research indicates that males prefer competition over cooperation, and it is sometimes suggested that females show the opposite behavioral preference. In the present article, we investigate the emotions behind the preferences: Do males exhibit more positive emotions during competitive than cooperative activities, and do females show the opposite pattern? We conducted two experiments where we assessed the emotional responses of same-gender dyads (in total 130 participants, 50 female) during intrinsically motivating competitive and cooperative digital game play using facial electromyography (EMG), skin conductance, heart rate measures, and self-reported emotional experiences. We found higher positive emotional responses (as indexed by both physiological measures and self-reports) during competitive than cooperative play for males, but no differences for females. In addition, we found no differences in negative emotions, and heart rate, skin conductance, and self-reports yielded contradictory evidence for arousal. These results support the hypothesis that males not only prefer competitive over cooperative play, but they also exhibit more positive emotional responses during them. In contrast, the results suggest that the emotional experiences of females do not differ between cooperation and competition, which implies that less competitiveness does not mean more cooperativeness. Our results pertain to intrinsically motivated game play, but might be relevant also for other kinds of activities.