### Browsing by Author "Tharakkal, Devika"

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Item Nonlinear magnetic buoyancy instability and turbulent dynamo(Oxford University Press, 2024-01-01) Qazi, Yasin; Shukurov, Anvar; Tharakkal, Devika; Gent, Frederick A.; Bendre, Abhijit B.; Department of Computer Science; Professorship Korpi-Lagg Maarit; Newcastle University; Ècole Polytechnique Fédérale de LausanneStratified disks with strong horizontal magnetic fields, are susceptible to magnetic buoyancy instability (MBI). Modifying the magnetic field and gas distributions, this can play an important role in galactic evolution. The MBI and the Parker instability, in which MBI is exacerbated by cosmic rays, are often studied using an imposed magnetic field. However, in galaxies and accretion discs, the magnetic field is continuously replenished by a large-scale dynamo action. Using non-ideal MHD equations, we model a section of the galactic disc (we neglect rotation and cosmic rays considered elsewhere), in which the large-scale field is generated by an imposed α-effect of variable intensity to explore the interplay between dynamo instability and MBI. The system evolves through three distinct phases: the linear (kinematic) dynamo stage, the onset of linear MBI when the magnetic field becomes sufficiently strong and the nonlinear, statistically steady state. Nonlinear effects associated with the MBI introduce oscillations which do not occur when the field is produced by the dynamo alone. The MBI initially accelerates the magnetic field amplification but the growth is quenched by the vertical motions produced by MBI. We construct a 1D model, which replicates all significant features of 3D simulations to confirm that magnetic buoyancy alone can quench the dynamo and is responsible for the magnetic field oscillations. Unlike similar results obtained with an imposed magnetic field, the nonlinear interactions do not reduce the gas scale height, so the consequences of the magnetic buoyancy depend on how the magnetic field is maintained.Item Steady states of the Parker instability(Oxford University Press, 2023-11-01) Tharakkal, Devika; Shukurov, Anvar; Gent, Frederick A.; Sarson, Graeme R.; Snodin, Andrew P.; Rodrigues, Luiz Felippe S.; Department of Computer Science; Professorship Korpi-Lagg Maarit; Newcastle University; Radboud University NijmegenWe study the linear properties, non-linear saturation, and a steady, strongly non-linear state of the Parker instability in galaxies. We consider magnetic buoyancy and its consequences with and without cosmic rays. Cosmic rays are described using the fluid approximation with anisotropic, non-Fickian diffusion. To avoid unphysical constraints on the instability (such as boundary conditions often used to specify an unstable background state), non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations are solved for deviations from a background state representing an unstable magnetohydrostatic equilibrium. We consider isothermal gas and neglect rotation. The linear evolution of the instability is in broad agreement with earlier analytical and numerical models; but we show that most of the simplifying assumptions of the earlier work do not hold, such that they provide only a qualitative rather than quantitative picture. In its non-linear stage the instability has significantly altered the background state from its initial state. Vertical distributions of both magnetic field and cosmic rays are much wider, the gas layer is thinner, and the energy densities of both magnetic field and cosmic rays are much reduced. The spatial structure of the non-linear state differs from that of any linear modes. A transient gas outflow is driven by the weakly non-linear instability as it approaches saturation.Item Steady states of the Parker instability : the effects of rotation(Oxford University Press, 2023-10-01) Tharakkal, Devika; Shukurov, Anvar; Gent, Frederick A.; Sarson, Graeme R.; Snodin, Andrew; Department of Computer Science; Professorship Korpi-Lagg Maarit; Newcastle UniversityWe model the Parker instability in vertically stratified isothermal gas using non-ideal MHD three-dimensional simulations. Rotation, especially differential, more strongly and diversely affects the nonlinear state than the linear stage (where we confirm the most important conclusions of analytical models), and stronger than any linear analyses predict. Steady-state magnetic fields are stronger and cosmic ray energy density is higher than in comparable non-rotating systems. Transient gas outflows induced by the nonlinear instability persist longer, of order 2 Gyr, with rotation. Stratification combined with (differential) rotation drives helical flows, leading to mean-field dynamo. Consequently, the nonlinear state becomes oscillatory (while both the linear instability and the dynamo are non-oscillatory). The horizontal magnetic field near the mid-plane reverses its direction propagating to higher altitudes as the reversed field spreads buoyantly. The spatial pattern of the large-scale magnetic field may explain the alternating magnetic field directions in the halo of the edge-on galaxy NGC 4631. Our model is unique in producing a large-scale magnetic structure similar to such observation. Furthermore, our simulations show that the mean kinetic helicity of the magnetically driven flows has the sign opposite to that in the conventional non-magnetic flows. This has profound consequences for the nature of the dynamo action and large-scale magnetic field structure in the coronae of spiral galaxies that remain to be systematically explored and understood. We show that the energy density of cosmic rays and magnetic field strength are not correlated at scales of order 1 kiloparsec.