### Browsing by Author "Sarson, Graeme R."

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Item Mean fields and fluctuations in compressible magnetohydrodynamic flows(TAYLOR & FRANCIS, 2022) Hollins, James F.; Sarson, Graeme R.; Evirgen, Cetin Can; Shukurov, Anvar; Fletcher, Andrew; Gent, Frederick A.; Department of Computer Science; Professorship Korpi-Lagg Maarit; Newcastle UniversityWe apply Gaussian smoothing to obtain mean magnetic field, density, velocity, and magnetic and kinetic energy densities from our numerical model of the interstellar medium, based on three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic equations in a shearing box 1 x 1 x 2 kpc in size. The interstellar medium is highly compressible, as the turbulence is transonic or supersonic; it is thus an excellent context in which to explore the use of smoothing to represent physical variables in a compressible medium in terms of their mean and fluctuating parts. Unlike alternative averaging procedures, such as horizontal averaging, Gaussian smoothing retains the three-dimensional structure of the mean fields. Although Gaussian smoothing does not obey the Reynolds rules of averaging, physically meaningful and mathematically sound central statistical moments are defined as suggested by Germano [Turbulence - The filtering approach. J. Fluid Mech. 1992, 238, 325-336]. We discuss methods to identify an optimal smoothing scale l and the effects of this choice on the results. From spectral analysis of the magnetic, density and velocity fields, we find a suitable smoothing length for all three fields, of l approximate to 75 pc. Such a smoothing scale is likely to be sensitive to the choice of simulation parameters; this may be considered in future work, but here we just explore the methodology. We discuss the properties of third-order statistical moments in fluctuations of kinetic energy density in compressible flows, and suggest their physical interpretation. The mean magnetic field, amplified by a mean-field dynamo, significantly alters the distribution of kinetic energy in space and between scales, reducing the magnitude of kinetic energy at intermediate scales. This intermediate-scale kinetic energy is a useful diagnostic of the importance of SN-driven outflows.Item Steady states of the Parker instability(Oxford University Press, 2023-11-01) Tharakkal, Devika; Shukurov, Anvar; Gent, Frederick A.; Sarson, Graeme R.; Snodin, Andrew P.; Rodrigues, Luiz Felippe S.; Department of Computer Science; Professorship Korpi-Lagg Maarit; Newcastle University; Radboud University NijmegenWe study the linear properties, non-linear saturation, and a steady, strongly non-linear state of the Parker instability in galaxies. We consider magnetic buoyancy and its consequences with and without cosmic rays. Cosmic rays are described using the fluid approximation with anisotropic, non-Fickian diffusion. To avoid unphysical constraints on the instability (such as boundary conditions often used to specify an unstable background state), non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations are solved for deviations from a background state representing an unstable magnetohydrostatic equilibrium. We consider isothermal gas and neglect rotation. The linear evolution of the instability is in broad agreement with earlier analytical and numerical models; but we show that most of the simplifying assumptions of the earlier work do not hold, such that they provide only a qualitative rather than quantitative picture. In its non-linear stage the instability has significantly altered the background state from its initial state. Vertical distributions of both magnetic field and cosmic rays are much wider, the gas layer is thinner, and the energy densities of both magnetic field and cosmic rays are much reduced. The spatial structure of the non-linear state differs from that of any linear modes. A transient gas outflow is driven by the weakly non-linear instability as it approaches saturation.Item Steady states of the Parker instability : the effects of rotation(Oxford University Press, 2023-10-01) Tharakkal, Devika; Shukurov, Anvar; Gent, Frederick A.; Sarson, Graeme R.; Snodin, Andrew; Department of Computer Science; Professorship Korpi-Lagg Maarit; Newcastle UniversityWe model the Parker instability in vertically stratified isothermal gas using non-ideal MHD three-dimensional simulations. Rotation, especially differential, more strongly and diversely affects the nonlinear state than the linear stage (where we confirm the most important conclusions of analytical models), and stronger than any linear analyses predict. Steady-state magnetic fields are stronger and cosmic ray energy density is higher than in comparable non-rotating systems. Transient gas outflows induced by the nonlinear instability persist longer, of order 2 Gyr, with rotation. Stratification combined with (differential) rotation drives helical flows, leading to mean-field dynamo. Consequently, the nonlinear state becomes oscillatory (while both the linear instability and the dynamo are non-oscillatory). The horizontal magnetic field near the mid-plane reverses its direction propagating to higher altitudes as the reversed field spreads buoyantly. The spatial pattern of the large-scale magnetic field may explain the alternating magnetic field directions in the halo of the edge-on galaxy NGC 4631. Our model is unique in producing a large-scale magnetic structure similar to such observation. Furthermore, our simulations show that the mean kinetic helicity of the magnetically driven flows has the sign opposite to that in the conventional non-magnetic flows. This has profound consequences for the nature of the dynamo action and large-scale magnetic field structure in the coronae of spiral galaxies that remain to be systematically explored and understood. We show that the energy density of cosmic rays and magnetic field strength are not correlated at scales of order 1 kiloparsec.